Methodological Options in G rammar Teaching Materials Rod Ellis(2002) Yu Tamura EFL 527 March 14, 2012
Outline 1. Introduction 2. An analysis of methodological options in grammar practice books 3. Discovering about grammar 4. Noticing grammatical features 5. Input-processing instruction 6. Some il ustrate teaching materials 7. Conclusion
Introduction What methodology for teaching grammar do grammar practi ce books employ? What is the empirical / theoretical basis for the chosen metho dology? Key words: “implicit” / “explicit” grammar teaching
An Analysis of Methodological Options in Grammar Practice Books Investigate 6 grammar practice book Choose one unit which deals with the present continuous tense Table 9.1 indicate the result
Methodological options Explicit descriptions Data Operations Supplied Source Text size Medium Production Reception Judgment Discover Authentic Discrete sentences Written Control ed Control ed Judge only Contrived Continuous Oral Free Automatic Correct
An Analysis of Methodological Optio ns in Grammar Practice Books Two predominant features Explicit description supplied Controlled production Less common features Discover Data Reception judgment
An Analysis of Methodological Options in Grammar Practice Books “Grammar constitutes a “content” that can be transmitted to s tudents via explicit descriptions and a “skil ” that is developed through control ed practice”(p.161) rethought The importance of discovering grammar rule Noticing grammatical features teaching grammar through input-processing
Discovering About Grammar Two key issues The role of explicit knowledge in SLA The value of discovery as a general method of learning Implicit and explicit knowledge Implicit and explicit learning A problem in teaching implicit knowledge Production practice doesn’t work. Solution make explicit knowledge 1. explicit knowledge can be acquired in any order 2. L2 learners have the ability to master complicated explicit kno wledge. 3. Explicit knowledge facilitates the process involved in the use a nd acquisition of implicit knowledge.
Discovering About Grammar How explicit knowledge can best be taught? 1. Direct instruction: explicit explanation 2. Indirect instruction: discovery-based recommended Why? 1. Motivating 2. Encourage students to form and test hypotheses about the gra mmar of the L2 3. Lead to powerful insights about the grammar of a language 4. Train to be a successful language learner 5. “Communicating”
Noticing grammar features The data options are rarely shown in the grammar practice b ook. few opportunities of “enhanced input” L2 acquisition begins with input. Necessity of noticing( consciousness attention) Some studies shows that enriched input has little effect on la nguage acquisition. Further research is needed. Identify the kinds of enriched input which works best How to measure the effect of noticing Discrete sentences vs. continuous sentences Written vs. Oral Not empirical y tested .
Noticing grammar features Teaching options Data (analyzing) → explicit rule Explicit rule → data (noticing) Data (analyzing) →explicit rule → data (noticing)
Input-processing Instruction 1. Teach Only one thing at a time. 2. Keep meaning in focus. 3. Learners must do something with the input. 4. Use both oral and written input. 5. Move from sentences to connected discourse. 6. Keep the psycholinguistic processing strategies in mind.
Some Illustrative teaching materials Involving learner judgment or discrimination. Task which requires leaners to perform or solve a problem. Aim in raising learners’ consciousness about grammar
Conclusion Tradition in grammar practice book Give explicit descriptions Controlled production exercise The role of SLA theory and research Suggestions Discovery-typed grammar tasks Consciousness raising Input-processing tasks SLA is not absolute. Teaching materials would play important role in language tea ching
Discussion Question What methodological options did you use in your micro teach ing in this class? Do you usual y think of what methodological options you use and why or what for you choose that options? How do you teach with a “traditional” textbook which mainly c onsists of explicit explanation and controlled production tas k?