Mycorrhizae Benefits Utah Green Industriy Conference Monday 25, 2010 Atul Nayyar, Ph. D., Biol.
Agenda • Brief intro to our company: Premier Tech • Mycorrhizal fungi, what they are and what they do! • Soil nutrient characteristics • Production technology to viable products • Mycorrhizal effects on plant growth • Conclusions
Seven business units gathered in three groups One mission To become technological and commercial leaders in the respective fields of expertise of its three groups
Premier Tech Biotechnologies has acquired over the years a unique expertise in industrial scale production of top quality mycorrhizal inoculants for the horticulture and agriculture market. 60 team members more than 20 dedicated to R&D adding up to more than 150 years of expertise in mycorrhizae.
Mycorrhizal fungi • Mycorrhizal fungi colonize the plant’s root system and develop a symbiotic association called a “mycorrhiza” • Form a network of filaments that associate with plant roots and draw nutrients and water from the soil that the root system would not be able to access otherwise. • Mycorrhizae are developped on more than 90% of plant species • Mycorrhizae are present naturally in almost all ecosystems
Types of mycorrhizae All arbutus and Arbutoid, Orchid orchid plants Not obligate fungi Orchids rely on Visible them All Ericaceous plants Ericoid (Blueberry, Azalea, Rhodos) Not obligate fungi
Types of mycorrhizae 15% of plants Ectomycorrhizae Most conifers, deciduous exceptions Visible 80% of plants Endomycorrhizae Most deciduous and herbaceous, cedars
Ectomycorrhizae 15% of plants Ectomycorrhizae (Pine, Spruce, Fir, Oak, Birch, Hazelnut) Fungi are not obligate, can live as saprophytes on organic matter. Show some host specificity Visible Do produce visible sporocarps above ground Mantle Outside cells
Endomycorrhizae (Arbuscular Mycorrhizae) • Arbuscules: transfer organs of the mycorrhizae. • Hyphae: connect root to soil. Act as pipeline. • Spores: resting, lipid filled structures. Is the seed of the fungus world. • Identification is based on these.
How to identify species • Spore morphology • DNA fingerprint Results: • Multiple nuclei per spores (thousands) • Each nucleus has a different genetic code • Very adaptable and versatile • Number of species (200) limited vs plants (250K)
Mycorrhizal Research A 1995 detailed analysis of databases of mycorrhizal research containing almost 12,000 references (Klironomos et al, 1995). During the last four decades, the average number of papers published per year were 84, 110, 214 and 488, respectively. The rate of publication in 1995 was about 700 papers per year, and well over 1000 now. Much research has focused on nutrient dynamics, inoculum production, mycorrhiza formation, and morphology and physiology of both arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) and ectomycorrhizas (EM). Research is conducted on all continents.
Mechanism of symbiosis Spore germination (signal)
Mechanism of symbiosis External Spore exploration production
Network Spore Root Hypha, pipeline
Endomycorrhizae at work LIVE!
Mycorrhizae advantages • Allow plants to draw more nutrients and water from the soil, including phosphorus • Result in vigorous and healthy plants • Accelerate rooting • Increase plant survival • Increase drought tolerance and others stresses • Enhance flowering and fruiting Root with mycorrhizae • Reduce transplant shock • Better yields • Reduce erosion Root without mycorrhizae
Some basic soil physico-chemico properties
Nutrient availability and micro-organisms activities vs pH
Nutrient uptake mecanisms Mass flow: water movement into the soil toward the roots Radical interception: Interception of solution ions during root growth Diffusion: Transfer of ions from higher to lower concentration
Facts 1. Plants absorb P from solution in proportion to the concentration of phosphate ions in the solution (solubilisation). 2. P is mainly absorbed by diffusion because it’s a non mobile ions in the soil solution. 3. If no other factors are limiting, growth will be proportional to the amount of P absorbed by plants. 4. The actively absorbing surface of plant roots is near the root tips. 5. Mycorrhizae may supply up to 80%* of the plant P. • Organic matter hydrolysis • Phosphatase activity (direct or indirect) • Increase of bacterial activity (symbiosis between soil bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi) *Bolan, N.S. 1991. A critical review on the role of mycorrhizal fungi in the uptake of phosphorus by plants. Plant and Soil 134 : 189-207.
Challenges of inoculum production Mass production of viable inoculum has been a challenge for large-scale application of mycorrhizal
inoculants • Cannot be grown in the absence of a plant host • Their physiology and their genetic structure are very complex • Production cycle over 3 – 5 months
Challenges of inoculum production Conventional process Production of host-plant in greenhouses
Challenges of inoculum production In vitro process Production under controlled environmental conditions using root culture
Challenges of inoculum production Conventional process In vitro process • Number of propagules per unit • Number of propagules per is variable unit is constant • Quantification is difficult and • Quantification is more inaccurate simple and accurate • Risk of plant pathogens • Plant pathogen-free • Restrictions in formulation and • Flexibility in formulation and application application • Limited production capacity • Higher production capacity • Quality of products is variable • Quality of products is constant
Need to master more than just inoculum production Production Formulations of the active tailor made to meet ingredient client requests Technical support in the Application of concentrated formulations
BENEFITS ON PLANTS TURF
RESULT: Establishment Average Bentgrass Coverage - Laval University Mycorrhizal inoculation accelerated coverage by 4-5 weeks 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 % coverage 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Number of weeks With Mycorrhizae Without Mycorrhizae
APPLICATIONS: Sod production Sod producer Lower St-Laurence Canada Seeded with powder on seed in fall 2008. Harvest Sept 12 2009. 33% less fertilizer applied (saved 300 lbs/ac N-P-K) WITHOUT WITH MYCORRHIZAE MYCORRHIZAE
APPLICATIONS: Sod Turf Without Mycorrhizae With Mycorrhizae
Downsview Park, Ontario Canada Use of granular applied mycorrhizae at sod installation WITHOUT WITH MYCORRHIZAE MYCORRHIZAE
By R. KOSKE1, J.N.GEMMA2 and N.JACKSON2 Department of Botany1 and Department of RESULT: Water use Plant Sciences2, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island Model tested: Penncross with water without water WITH WITHOUT without water MYCORRHIZAE MYCORRHIZAE Turf without mycorrhizae began Mycorrhizal turf showed 39% wilting after 3 days less water stress than without Mycorrhizal turf wilted after 5 days After eight days, the difference was 60%
RESULT: Disease resistance Spread of Dollar spot - Laval University Mycorrhizal turf had 35% less disease invasion 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 % coverage 10 0 2 3 Weeks after disease introduction Without Mycorrhizae With Mycorrhizae
BENEFITS ON PLANTS TREES & SHRUBS
Growth increase Ash trial (Université Laval, Québec) Height increase of 79% with Mycorrhizae
City Tree Tree survival in City conditions 10 8 1998 6 1999 2000 4 2001 2 0 With Without Black maple Mycorrhizae Guelph University 2001 Mycorrhizae
Plantations in Mexico Pinus michoacana With With Mycorrhizae Without Without Mycorrhizae
Mycorrhizae in Citrus nursery production Willits & Newcomb Inc, Arvin, California. Orange production, 150 cc. Without mycorrhizae With mycorrhizae
Mycorrhizal inoculant use in nurseries
BENEFITS ON PLANTS ANNUALS & PERENNIALS
Annuals and perennials
BENEFITS ON PLANTS FIELD CROPS
Lentil trial yields
LOCATIONS: Canada (MB), USA (ND,WI, NE, IA, MN) Fertilizer: 100-180 lb N
BENEFITS FOR SOIL
Mycorrhizal effects on soil structure • Soil structure refers to pore spaces as well as aggregates, and the number and dimension of pore spaces between particles are important in functional considerations. • The effects of soil structure are of critical importance to the maintenance of soil function. • Better soil structure gives: Greater water infiltration and water holding capacity. More permeability to air.
Better root development.
Higher microbial activity and nutrient cycling.
Better resistance to surface sealing (crusts).
Better resistance to erosion (water/wind)
Better resistance to compaction
SOIL STRUCTURE AGGREGATION Plays a major role in soil aggregation through hyphae networking and glomalin (biological glue) production Improvement of soil structure • Stimulation of beneficial microbial activity Water infiltration improvement • Reduction of erosion and nutrient leaching 7
Conclusions: MYCORRHIZAE • Absorption of P & other minerals • Better H O use 2 • Plant establishment & survival • Erosion control
Why add a commercial inoculum to your operations? • Apply the correct, certified viable amount of a performant species • Apply it at the right time (at planting) • Apply it at the right place (in planting hole) • Increase the value of your work (growth benefits)
Single AMF species vs Several AMF species • The effect of AMF mixtures on plant growth and P uptake were mostly within the range of the effects exerted by the respective single AMF species (Jansa, Smith and Smith, 2007). • In the main, there was little evidence for increased P uptake and/or growth of plants colonized by several AMF species compared with a single species (Jansa, Smith and Smith, 2007). • In the case of several species cocktail, we have to consider : Antagonism between AMF species Compatibility with bacteria
Specific functions of each AMF
Premier Tech and Mycorrhizal Technology CAN Registration requirements: The statement must identify the agronomic benefit(s) that will be derived from the use of the product. Conducted with a minimum of 2 independent researchers Conducted for a minimum of 2 growing seasons Conducted in East and West Canada with 4 sites per region 4 replications of randomized tests per site Each year, at least 60% of trials show significant positive response Total number of trials 32 experimental set-ups, at least 20 showed positive results. Presently 22 products registered (CFIA) Presently registered in 30 States