38 潜水艦隊 潜水艦隊 Fleet Submarine Force Submarine Fleet 大湊地方隊 大湊海軍区 Ominato District Ominato Naval District 護衛艦（DD） 駆逐艦（DD） フリゲート艦 （FF） destroyer (DD) destroyer (DD) frigate (FF) 護衛艦（DDG） ミサイル搭載駆逐 艦（DDG） destroyer (DDG) destroyer, guided missile- equipped (DDG) 護衛艦（DDH） ヘリコプター搭載 駆逐艦（DDH） destroyer (DDH) destroyer, helicopter-equipped (DDH) 護衛艦 （16/18/22DDH） ヘリコプター空母 （CVH） destroyer (equipped with helicopters) (16/18/22DDH) helicopter carrier (CVH) 航空幕僚長 空軍参謀長 Chief of Staﬀ, ASDF Chief of Air Force Staﬀ 航空幕僚監部 空軍参謀部 Air Staﬀ Oﬃce Air Force Staﬀ Oﬃce 航空総隊司令官 航空作戦司令官 Commander, Air Defense Command Commander, Air Operations Command 航空総隊司令部 航空作戦司令部 Air Defense Command Headquarters Air Operations Command Headquarters 航空総隊 航空作戦軍 Air Defense Command Air Operations Command 北部航空方面隊 北部航空方面軍 Northern Air Defense Force Northern Air Force 北部航空方面隊 司令部 北部航空方面軍司 令部 Northern Air Defense Force Headquarters Northern Air Force Head- quarters 将（幕僚長の階 級） 大将 General (GSDF, ASDF), Admiral (MSDF) General (JA, JAF), Admiral (JN) 将（幕僚長以外 の階級） 中将 General (GSDF, ASDF), Admiral (MSDF) Lieutenant General (JA, JAF), Vice Admiral (JN) 将補の（一） 少将 Major General (GSDF, ASDF), Rear Admiral (MSDF) Major General (JA, JAF), Rear Admiral (JN) 将補の（二） 〔 1 佐の（一）〕 准将 Major General (GSDF, ASDF), Rear Admiral (MSDF) Brigadier General (JA, JAF), Commodore (JN) 1 佐の（二） 1 佐の（三） 大佐 Colonel (GSDF, ASDF), Captain (MSDF) Colonel (JA, JAF), Captain (JN) 1 尉 大尉 Captain (GSDF, ASDF), Lieutenant (MSDF) Captain (JA, JAF), Lieutenant (JN) 提言 名称変更 139 自衛隊の組織・装備の名称変更案 表 1 自衛隊の現行名称と新名称案 現行名称 新名称案 現行英語名称 新英語名称案 自衛隊 防衛軍 Self-Defense Force (SDF) Japanese Defense Force (JDF) 自衛官 軍人 members of the SDF military personnel; members of the military 陸上自衛隊 陸軍 Ground Self-Defense Force (GSDF) Japanese Army (JA) 海上自衛隊 海軍 Maritime Self-Defense Force (MSDF) Japanese Navy (JN) 航空自衛隊 空軍 Air Self-Defense Force (ASDF) Japanese Air Force (JAF) 統合幕僚長 統合参謀長 Chief of Staﬀ, Joint Staﬀ Chief of Joint Staﬀ 統合幕僚監部 統合参謀部 Joint Staﬀ Oﬃce Joint Staﬀ Oﬃce 陸上幕僚長 陸軍参謀長 Chief of Staﬀ, GSDF Chief of Army Staﬀ 陸上幕僚監部 陸軍参謀部 Ground Staﬀ Oﬃce Army Staﬀ Oﬃce ――― 陸軍作戦司令官 ――― Commander, Army Opera- tions Command ――― 陸軍作戦司令部 ――― Army Operations Command 北部方面隊 北部方面軍 Northern Army Northern Army 北部方面総監 北部方面軍司令官 Commanding General of the Northern Army Commander, Northern Army 北部方面総監部 北部方面軍司令部 Northern Army Headquar- ters Northern Army Headquar- ters 中央即応集団 特別即応集団 Central Readiness Force Special Rapid Response Force 普通科 歩兵科 infantry infantry 特科 砲兵科 artillery artillery 施設科 工兵科 engineer engineer 海上幕僚長 海軍参謀長 Chief of Staﬀ, MSDF Chief of Naval Staﬀ 海上幕僚監部 海軍参謀部 Maritime Staﬀ Oﬃce Naval Staﬀ Oﬃce 自衛艦隊司令官 海軍作戦司令官 Commander in Chief of the Self-Defense Fleet Commander, Naval Opera- tions Command 自衛艦隊司令部 海軍作戦司令部 Self-Defense Fleet Head- quarters Naval Operations Command 自衛艦隊 機動艦隊 Self-Defense Fleet Mobile Operations Fleet 護衛艦隊 水上艦隊 Fleet Escort Force Surface Combatant Fleet 護衛隊群 駆逐戦隊 Escort Flotilla Destroyer Squadron 航空集団 海軍航空隊 Fleet Air Force Naval Aviation
42 Renaming the Self-Defense Force for Better Civilian Control and Transparency Narushige Michishita Associate Professor, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies Since the end of the Second World War, the Japanese government has treated the na- tion s armed forces as if they are not actually military forces. Based on idiosyncratic reading of its constitution, while Japan technically cannot possess army, navy, and air force, it can possess some special quasi-military force designed solely for the purpose of self-defense, which it decided to call the Self-Defense Force (SDF). In addition, in order to maintain the internal logic of the ﬁction, the government continues to use idiosyn- cratic names (in Japanese) for the SDF s organizations and equipment. For example, in- fantry units are called ordinary units, artillery units are called special units, and en- gineer units are called facility units. In the Maritime Self-Defense Force, a cover name for what is eﬀectively the Japanese navy, a 2,950-ton Hatsuyuki -class combatant and a 13,950-ton Hyuga -class combatant are identically called escort ships. However, this kind of linguistic trickery has failed to deceive professional eyes. As a result, the , published by the International Institute for Strategic Studies based in London, has categorized the 13,950-ton vessel as an aircraft carrier equipped with helicopters (CVH). With 240,000 men and women under arms and the sixth largest defense expendi- ture in the world, presenting the SDF as a non-military organization is unhealthy at best and deceptive at worst. This Japanese practice is particularly problematic in two ways. First, it undermines eﬀective civilian control in Japan. In order to maintain eﬀec- tive civilian control, the Japanese people must be able to understand what kind of mili- tary capabilities their country has or does not have. However, not many Japanese citi- zens know the fact that the ordinary units are in fact infantry units and that their country actually possesses helicopter carriers. Second, the use of misleading names undermines transparency of Japanese defense policy. Foreign students I teach sometimes ask me how Japan can characterize the SDF as something short of military force, their eyes ﬁlled with suspicion. Late last year, Chinese Maj. Gen. Luo Yuan noted that Japan had constructed a light aircraft carrier but called it helicopter-equipped escort ship, and criticized that Japan was engaged in military buildup in a secretive manner. He might have made these remarks with an ul- terior motive, but his remarks were not entirely oﬀ the mark. (By the way, foreign ob- servers are actually in a better position to understand the reality of Japan s defense force than the Japanese people. This is because when translated into English, some of the idiosyncratic names become normalized. For example, what are called ordinary units in Japanese have been translated as infantry units, and what is called an escort ship in Japanese is translated as destroyer. This might sound pathetic, but this is what we do). In this context, I would suggest that the Japanese government rename or normalize the names of the SDF as well as some of its organizations and equipment in order to make civilian control in this country more eﬀective and enhance transparency of Japan s defense capabilities and policy.