Available online at www.sciencedirect.com 創造システム理論 Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 2 (2010) 6305–6625 Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 2 (2010) 6610–6625 Creative Systems Theory COINs2009: Collaborativ COINs2009: Collaborati e Inno v v e Inno ation Netw v orks Conference ation Netw An Autopoietic Systems Theory for Creativity Takashi Ibaab aMIT Center for Collective Intelligence, Cambridge MA, USA 創造とは、《発見》を要素とする bFaculty of Policy Management, Keio University, Japan
オートポイエティック・システム Abstract である。 In this paper, a new, non-psychological and non-sociological approach to understanding creativity is proposed. The approach is based on autopoietic system theory, where an autopoietic system is defined as a unity whose organization is defined by a particular network of production processes of elements. While the theory was originally proposed in biology and then applied to sociology, I have applied it to understand the nature of creation, and called it "Creative Systems Theory". A creative system is an autopoietic system whose element is "discovery", which emerges only when a synthesis of three selections has occurred: "idea", "association", and "consequence". With using these concepts, we open the way to understand creation itself separated from psychic and social aspects of creativity. On this basis, the coupling between creative, psychic, and social systems is discussed. I suggest, in this paper, the future of creativity studies, re-defining a discipline "Creatology" for inquiring creative systems and propose an interdisciplinary field as "Creative Sciences" for interdisciplinary connections among creatology, psychology, and so on.
C C C Consumption Communication Creation 消費社会 情報社会 創造社会
Pattern Languages as Media for Narrative & Dialogues 語りと対話のメディアとしてのパターン・ランゲージ
パターン・ランゲージを用いた 対話ワークショップ Experience Mining and Dialogues with Pattern Languages 取り入れたいパターンを、すでに体験している人を探す。 見つけたら体験談を聞く。 逆に、自分の体験したパターンを取り入れたい人がいた ら、その人に、体験談を他の人に話す。
Workshop in the COINs2011 Conference
Orality and Literacy Walter J. Ong Routledge, 1982, 2002 『声の文化と文字の文化』 （ウォルター・Ｊ・オング, 藤原書店, 1991）
Adventure Playground 670 words (C. Alexander) 2 photos, 1 sketch Any kind of playground which disturbs, or reduces, the role of imagination and makes the child more passive, more the recipient of someone else’s imagination, may look nice, may be clean, may be safe, may be health --- but it just cannot satisfy the fundamental need which play is all about. And, to put it bluntly, it is a waste of time and money. Huge abstract sculptured playlands are just as bad as asphalt playgrounds and jungle gyms. They are not just sterile; they are useless. The functions they perform have nothing to do with the child’s most basic needs. ... This need for adventurous and imaginative play is taken care of handily in small towns and in the countryside, where children have access to raw materials, space, and a somewhat comprehensible environment. In cities, however, it has become a pressing concern. The world of private toys and asphalt playgrounds does not provide the proper settings for this kind A castle, made of cartons, rocks, and old branches, by a of play. group of children for themselves, is worth a thousand perfectly detailed, exactly finished castles, made for them in a factory. Play has many functions; it gives children a chance to be together, a chance to use their bodies, to build muscles, and to test new skills. But above all, play is a function of the Therefore: imagination. A child’s play is his way of dealing with the issues Set up a playground for the children in each of his growth, of relieving tensions and exploring the future. It neighborhood. Not a highly finished playground, with reflects directly the problems and joys of his social reality. asphalt and swings, but a place with raw materials of all Children come to terms with the world, wrestle with their kinds --- nets, boxes, barrels, trees, ropes, simple tools, pictures of it, and reform these pictures constantly, through those frames, grass, and water --- where children can create adventures of imagination we call play. and re-create playgrounds of their own.
Jump In 182 words (Learning Patterns) 1 illustration No. No.4 Jump In Do not hesitate to jump into a new learning environment. You have already found the new environment wihch you wish to be in and about to start a new challenge. You are still doubtful whether the community is really suitable for you. It is not until you learn that you really understand what you wanted to learn. Jump into the new environment for your learning. “The great composer does not set to work because he is inspired, but be- “Make up your mind to act decidedly and take the consequences. No good Observe the events that happen there and learn from the members. Engage in the activity with all your effort as possible. After some time, evaluate the environment and rebuild a plan of your learning.
Cheer-up Cookies 68 words (Generative Beauty Patterns) 4 photos 31 Context Your feelings are unclear. Cheer-up Cookies Recover your mood Problem You can’t figure out why your feelings are so pent-up. Solution Know a way that would cheer you up. Listen to your favorite music; eat your favorite food; go out to the movies; talk to a friend. If you know what would cheer you up, you can always be in a good mood. ▶ 28. Lavish Makeover 37. Space Out
Adventure Playground 670 words PL1.0 (C. Alexander) 2 photos, 1 sketch Abstract Factory 2,159 words PL2.0 (GoF’s Design Patterns) 2 diagram 83 lines code Jump In 182 words 1 illustration (Leaerning Patterns) PL3.0 Cheer-up Cookies 68 words (Generative Beauty Patterns) 4 photos Pattern Languages as Media for Narrative & Dialogues 語りと対話のメディアとして使うことを考え、パターンの文章を短くシンプルにしている。
Pattern Languages as Media for Narrative & Dialogues 語りと対話のメディアとしてのパターン・ランゲージ
The Nature of Order Vol.1-4, Christopher Alexander Vol.1 The Phenomenon of Life Part One 1. The Phenomenon of Life 2. Degrees of Life 3.Wholeness and the Theory of Centers 4. How Life comes from Wholeness 5. Fifteen Fundamental Properties 6. The Fifteen Properties in Nature Part Two 7. The Personal Nature of Order 8. The Mirror of the Self 9. Beyond Descartes: A New Form of Scientific Observation 10. The Impact of Living Structure on Human Life 11. The Awakening of Space Appendices: Mathematical Aspects of Wholeness and Living Structure
Wholeness, Centers, and Pattern Languages ... these parts and entities are rarely pre- existing. They are more often themselves created by the wholeness. This apparent paradox (seeming paradoxical only because of the simple-minded way in which it is expressed) is a fundamental issue in the nature of wholeness: the wholeness is made of parts; the parts are created by the wholeness. To understand wholeness we must have a conception in which "parts" and wholes work in this holistic way. To have a consistent way of talking about these entities, during recent years, I have learned to call them all (whether parts or or local wholes or hardly visible coherent Centers entities), "centers." Christopher Alexander, The Nature of Order, BOOK ONE, Chapter 3, p.84
The Fifteen Fundamental Properties STRONG CENTERS LEVELS OF SCALE POSITIVE SPACES ALTERNATING REPETITION BOUNDARIES CONTRAST THE VOID GRADIENTS GOOD SHAPE ECHOES NOT- DEEP SEPARATENESS INTERLOCK AND LOCAL AMBIGUITY SYMMETRIES SIMPLICITY AND INNER CALM ROUGHNESS Visualized by Takashi Iba, based on Christopher Alexander, The Nature of Order, BOOK ONE
1. Levels Of Scale 2. Strong Centers 3. Boundaries The Fifteen Fundamental Properties 4. AlternatingL Repetition 5. Positive Spaces 6. Good Shape 7. Local Symmetries 8. Deep Interlock and Ambiguity 9. Contrast 10. Gradients 11. Roughness 12. Echoes 13. The Void 14. Simplicity and Inner Calm 15. Not-Separateness Visualized by Takashi Iba, based on Christopher Alexander, The Nature of Order, BOOK ONE
The Fifteen Fundamental Properties 1. Levels Of Scale 2. Strong Centers 3. Boundaries 4. AlternatingL Repetition 5. Positive Spaces 6. Good Shape Visualized by Takashi Iba, based on Christopher Alexander, The Nature of Order, BOOK ONE
The Fifteen Fundamental Properties 7. Local Symmetries 8. Deep Interlock and Ambiguity 9. Contrast 10. Gradients 11. Roughness 12. Echoes Visualized by Takashi Iba, based on Christopher Alexander, The Nature of Order, BOOK ONE
The Fifteen Fundamental Properties 13. The Void 14. Simplicity and Inner Calm 15. Not-Separateness Visualized by Takashi Iba, based on Christopher Alexander, The Nature of Order, BOOK ONE
Town / community buildings 1. INDEPENDENT REGIONS 67. COMMON LAND 95. BUILDING COMPLEX 127. INTIMACY GRADIENT 68. CONNECTED PLAY 96. NUMBER OF STORIES 128. INDOOR SUNLIGHT Alexander’s 2. THE DISTRIBUTION OF TOWNS 69. PUBLIC OUTDOOR ROOM 97. SHIELDED PARKING 129. COMMON AREAS AT THE HEART 3. CITY COUNTRY FINGERS 70. GRAVE SITES 98. CIRCULATION REALMS 130. ENTRANCE ROOM 4. AGRICULTURAL VALLEYS 71. STILL WATER 99. MAIN BUILDING 131. THE FLOW THROUGH ROOMS 5. LACE OF COUNTRY STREETS 72. LOCAL SPORTS 100. PEDESTRIAN STREET 132. SHORT PASSAGES 6. COUNTRY TOWNS 73. ADVENTURE PLAYGROUND 101. BUILDING THOROUGHFARE 133. STAIRCASE AS A STAGE 7. THE COUNTRYSIDE 74. ANIMALS 102. FAMILY OF ENTRANCES 134. ZEN VIEW 103. SMALL PARKING LOTS 135. TAPESTRY OF LIGHT AND DARK Patterns & 8. MOSAIC OF SUBCULTURES 75. THE FAMILY 9. SCATTERED WORK 76. HOUSE FOR A SMALL FAMILY 104. SITE REPAIR 136. COUPLE'S REALM 10. MAGIC OF THE CITY 77. HOUSE FOR A COUPLE 105. SOUTH FACING OUTDOORS 137. CHILDREN'S REALM 11. LOCAL TRANSPORT AREAS 78. HOUSE FOR ONE PERSON 106. POSITIVE OUTDOOR SPACE 138. SLEEPING TO THE EAST 79. YOUR OWN HOME 107. WINGS OF LIGHT 139. FARMHOUSE KITCHEN 12. COMMUNITY OF 7000 108. CONNECTED BUILDING 140. PRIVATE TERRACE ON THE STREET 13. SUBCULTURE BOUNDARY 80. SELF-GOVERNING WORKSHOPS AND OFFICES 109. LONG THIN HOUSE 141. A ROOM OF ONE'S OWN 14. IDENTIFIABLE NEIGHBORHOOD 81. SMALL SERVICES WITHOUT RED TAPE 142. SEQUENCE OF SITTING SPACES The Fifteen 15. NEIGHBORHOOD BOUNDARY 82. OFFICE CONNECTIONS 110. MAIN ENTRANCE 143. BED CLUSTER 83. MASTER AND APPRENTICES 111. HALF-HIDDEN GARDEN 144. BATHING ROOM 16. WEB OF PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION 84. TEENAGE SOCIETY 112. ENTRANCE TRANSITION 145. BULK STRAGE 17. RING ROADS 85. SHOPFRONT SCHOOLS 113. CAR CONNECTION 18. NETWORK OF LEARNING 86. CHILDREN'S HOME 114. HIERARCHY OF OPEN SPACE 146. FLEXIBLE OFFICE SPACE 19. WEB OF SHOPPING 115. COURTYARDS WHICH LIVE 147. COMMUNAL EATING 20. MINI-BUSES 87. INDIVIDUALLY OWNED SHOPS 116. CASCADE OF ROOFS 148. SMALL WORK GOURPS Fundamental 88. STREET CAFE 117. SHELTERING ROOF 149. RECEPTION WELCOMES YOU 21. FOUR-STORY LIMIT 89. CORNER GROCERY 118. ROOF GARDEN 150. A PLACE TO WAIT 22. NINE PER CENT PARKING 90. BEER HALL 151. SMALL MEETING ROOMS 23. PARALLEL ROADS 91. TRAVELER'S INN 119. ARCADES 152. HALF-PRIVATE OFFICE 24. SACRED SITES 92. BUS STOP 120. PATHS AND GOALS 25. ACCESS TO WATER 93. FOOD STANDS 121. PATH SHAPE 153. ROOMS TO RENT 26. LIFE CYCLE 94. SLEEPING IN PUBLIC 122. BUILDING FRONTS 154. TEENAGER'S COTTAGE 27. MEN AND WOMEN 123. PEDESTRIAN DENSITY 155. OLD AGE COTTAGE Properties 124. ACTIVITY POCKETS 156. SETTLED WORK 28. ECCENTRIC NUCLEUS 125. STAIR SEATS 157. HOME WORKSHOP 29. DENSITY RINGS 126. SOMETHING ROUGHLY IN THE MIDDLE 158. OPEN STAIRS 30. ACTIVITY NODES 31. PROMENADE 159. LIGHT ON TWO SIDES OF EVERY ROOM 32. SHOPPING STREET 160. BUILDING EDGE 33. NIGHT LIFE 161. SUNNY PLACE 34. INTERCHANGE 162. NORTH FACE 163. OUTDOOR ROOM 35. HOUSEHOLD MIX 164. STREET WINDOWS 36. DEGREES OF PUBLICNESS STRONG 165. OPENING TO THE STREET 37. HOUSE CLUSTER CENTERS 166. GALLERY SURROUND 38. ROW HOUSES LEVELS OF SCALE 167. SIX-FOOT BALCONY 39. HOUSING HILL 168. CONNECTION TO THE EARTH 40. OLD PEOPLE EVERYWHERE 169. TERRACED SLOPE 41. WORK COMMUNITY POSITIVE SPACES ALTERNATING 170. FRUIT TREES 42. INDUSTRIAL RIBBON REPETITION 171. TREE PLACES 43. UNIVERSITY AS A MARKETPLACE 172. GRADEN GROWING WILD BOUNDARIES 44. LOCAL TOWN HALL 173. GARDEN WALL 45. NECKLACE OF COMMUNITY PROJECTS CONTRAST 174. TRELLISED WALK 46. MARKET OF MANY SHOPS 175. GREENHOUSE 47. HEALTH CENTER 176. GRADEN SEAT 48. HOUSING IN BETWEEN THE VOID GRADIENTS 177. VEGETABLE GARDEN 178. COMPOST 49. LOOPED LOCAL ROADS GOOD SHAPE 50. T JUNCTIONS 179. ALCOVE 51. GREEN STREETS 180. WINDOW PLACE 52. NETWORK OF PATHS AND CARS 181. THE TREE 53. MAIN GATEWAYS ECHOES 182. EATING ATMOSPHERE 54. ROAD CROSSING 183. WORKSPACE ENCLOSURE 55. RAISED WALK NOT- DEEP 184.COOKING LAYOUT 56. BIKE PATHS AND RACKS SEPARATENESS INTERLOCK AND 185. SITTING CIRCLE 57. CHILDREN IN THE CITY LOCAL AMBIGUITY 186. COMMUNAL SLEEPING 187. MARRIAGE BED SYMMETRIES 58. CARNIVAL 188. BED ALCOVE 59. QUIET BACKS 189. DRESSING ROOM 60. ACCESSIBLE GREEN SIMPLICITY AND 61. SMALL PUBLIC SQUARES 190. CEILING HEIGHT VARIETY INNER CALM ROUGHNESS 62. HIGH PLACES 191. THE SHAPE OF INDOOR SPACE 63. DANCING IN THE STREET 192. WINDOWS OVERLOOKING LIFE 64. POOLS AND STREAMS 193. HALF-OPEN WALL 65. BIRTH PLACES 194. INTERIOR WINDOWS 66. HOLY GROUND 195. STAIRCASE VOLUME 196. CORNER DOORS 197. THICK WALLS 198. CLOSETS BETWEEN ROOMS structure / details 199. SUNNY COUNTER 200. OPEN SHELVES 205. STRUCTURE FOLLOWS SOCIAL SPACES 226. COLUMN PLACE 201. WAIST-HIGH SHELF 206. EFFICIENT STRUCTURE 227. COLUMN CONNECTION 202. BUILT-IN SEATS 207. GOOD MATERIALS 228. STAIR VAULT 203. CHILD CAVES 208. GRADUAL STIFFENING 229. DUCT SPACE 204. SECRET PLACE 230. RADIANT HEAT 209. ROOF LAYOUT 231. DORMER WINDOWS 210. FLOOR AND CEILING LAYOUT 232. ROOF CAPS 211. THICKENING THE OUTER WALLS 212. COLUMNS AT THE CORNERS 223. FLOOR SURFACE 213. FINAL COLUMN DISTRIBUTION 234. LAPPED OUTSIDE WALLS 235. SOFT INSIDE WALLS 214. ROOT FOUNDATION 236. WINDOWS WHICH OPEN WIDE 215. GROUND FLOOR SLAB 237. SOLID DOORS WITH GLASS 216. BOX COLUMNS 238. FILTERED LIGHT 217. PERIMETER BEAMS 239. SMALL PANES 218. WALL MEMBRANES 240. HALF-INCH TRIM Visualized by Takashi Iba, based on 219. FLOOR-CEILING VAULTS 220. ROOF VAULTS 241. SEAT SPOTS 242. FRONT DOOR BENCH 221. NATURAL DOORS AND WINDOWS 243. SITTING WALL Christopher Alexander, The Nature of 222. LOW SILL 244. CANVAS ROOFS 249. ORNAMENT 223. DEEP REVEALS 245. RAISED FLOWERS 250. WARM COLORS 224. LOW DOORWAY 246. CLIMBING PLANTS 251. DIFFERENT CHAIRS 225. FRAMES AS THICKENED EDGES 247. PAVING WITH CRACKS BETWEEN THE STONES 252. POOLS OF LIGHT Order, BOOK ONE 248. SOFT TILE AND BRICK 253. THINGS FROM YOUR LIFE
a whole of learning a learner learning learning as a center as a center learning learning as a center as a center