, service design & design thinking by Sylvain Cottong, www.integratedplace.com SA UX Forum, Faculty of Design, University of Johannesburg, August 18th, 2009 http://groups.google.com/group/sa‐ux‐forum/browse_thread/thread/ba87ca0252c48a7d
User ex e perience design
What is user experience p design? User Experience (abbre (abbr v e iat ia e t d: UX) is the
quality of exp ex eri r ence a person has when interacting with a specific design. This can range from a specific artifact, such as a cup, toy or website, up to
g lar er g , int in e t gra gr t a ed t exp ex eri r ences such as a museum or an airport. Source: http: p // / www / .uxnet.org/ g/ It most commonly refers to the result of a planned integration of software design, business, and psychology concerns. In the web world, user experience is sometimes conflated with usability, information architecture (IA), and user interface (UI) d i es gn, all of hi w h c are components of i t. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User_experience_design
What is user experience p design? Jesse James Garret’s famous representation of UX for the Web:
What is user experience p design? Peter Morville’s honeycombs: Information architecture: ‐ The combination of organisation, labeling, and navigation schemes within an information system. ‐ The structural design of an information space to facilitate task completion and intuitive access to content. Sources: http://semanticstudios.com/publications/sem antics/000010.php http / : / //seman i t cs di tu os.com/ bli pu ca i t / ons sem antics/000029.php
What is user experience p design? Peter Morville’s honeycombs:
What is user experience p design? UX design is a Human‐Centered Design process An International Standard ISO 13407: The Human‐centered design process defines a general process for including human
‐cen ‐ t cen er t ed er activities
o thr ughout a dev
e dev lopment lopmen lif e lif ‐cycle cy , but
does not specify exact methods.
What is user experience p design? UX design is a Human‐Centered Design process Specify the context of use Identify the people who will use the product, what they will use it for, and
what wha c o c nditions they the will
use it. Specify requirements Identify any business requirements or user goals that must be met me for the
product pr to be
ful success . Create design solutions This part of the process may be done in stages, building from a rough concept p to a complete design. Evaluate designs The most important part of this process is that evaluation ‐ ideally through usability testing with actual users ‐ is as integral as quality testing is to good software development.
What is user experience p design? UX design is a Human‐Centered Design process
UX design pr p ocess Many similar ways of representing the UX design process.
UX design process
UX design process
UX design process
UX design process
UX design process
Typic yp al UX tools & deliverables: Personas
Typical UX tools & deliverables: Mental models
Typic yp al UX tools & deliverables: Wireframes
Typical UX tools & deliverables: Wireframes
Typic yp al UX tools & deliverables: Concept p map
Key benefits of UX? Benefits Bene to Businesses in
t En e t rprise e Applic
a Applic t a ions ¾Manages the risk the workers won't be able to use the application, or won't want to use it ¾Ensures that vital features are not left out ¾Reduces costly development of features that users don't want or don't need ¾Reduces training and support costs
Key benefits of UX? Benefits to Businesses in Customer‐Facing Applications ¾Enables ease‐of‐use, ,resulting in higher conversion rates and greater cross‐selling and up‐selling opportunities ¾Reduces support & service costs, generates greater customer satisfaction & loyalty and improved perception of the brand ¾Improves customers' tolerance of business goals that conflict with their personal goals ¾Reduced overall project costs and timescales ¾And thus generates increased revenues
What is Service design g ? ¾Today, services represent between 60% & 70 % of GDP of most mos industrialised indus nations na ¾Whereas design methods have always been applied to products, ,services have long been considered as a necessary extension to products without paying them the same attention than products themselves ¾Most products today are combined with services, thus it is the overall experience that counts and that is judged by customers ¾The emerging field of service design combines design methods from product design & interaction design for designing the exp ex eri r e i nce of and
int in e t rfa rf ce to ser
vices v . A lot
of educated interaction designers work in service design.
What is Service design g ? Service design is about making what you do more useful, usable &desirable for your users, and more efficient, effective & valuable for you ‐ everyone loves a great experience. Do you remember the UX design honeycomb ?
What is Service design g ? Service design is a human‐centered approach that focuses on customer experience and the quality of service encountered as the key value for success. Do you remember the human‐centered design process ?
Service design: g Key y concepts p Service touch points are the tangibles, for example: spaces, objects, people or interactions that make the total experience of using a service, i.e.: ¾Advertising ¾Web, mobile phone & PC interfaces ¾Physical environments (shops, reception areas, transport environments, hospitals, etc.) ¾Customer facing staff (Call centers, customer representatives, receptionists, etc.) ¾Communication & mailings, etc.
Service design: g Key y concepts p ¾ Systems Services are provided and experienced through syste y ms and relationships. ¾ Value Different services create and measure value in different ways, but most services try to provide the best value for both users and producers. ¾ Journeys y All services are experienced over time. People also take different journeys to, through, and from a service. ¾ People Services always involve people and rely on both the user and the producer working together. ¾ Propositions Services are generally packaged as a ‘proposition’ for users to buy into.
Service design: g Tools & Methods Ethnography, user studies & personas Identifying, discovering and understanding the service context and the users.
Service design: g Tools & Methods Customer journey map Illustrates how the customer perceives and experiences the service interface along the time axis.
Service design: g Tools & Methods Service blueprinting Allows for a quantitative description of critical service elements elemen , such as time, logical sequences of actions and processes, also specifying both actions and events that happen in the time and place p of the interaction (front stage g ) and actions and events that are out of the line of visibility for user
s user , but ar e ar fundament fundamen al t fo r the
delivery deliv of the
Service design: g Tools & Methods Ideation, context mapping & participatory design Reveals users’ conscious and latent needs, experiences, hopes p and expect p ations. Users participate in a workshop facilitated by a tutor.
Service design: g Tools & Methods Service prototyping: Scenarios, storytelling, storyboards, real wo ld r expe i r ence i s l mu t a i tion
Service design: g Tools & Methods Service prototyping: Scenarios, storytelling, storyboards, real world expe i r ence i s l mu t a i tion T h ec i n ques from movie‐ ki ma ng and the f per orming t ar s are thus very useful for service prototyping.
Service design: g Key y benefits Do you remember the key ke benefits from UX design? ¾Enables ease‐of‐use, resulting in higher conversion rates and greater cross‐ lli se ng d an up‐ lli se ng opportuni i t es ¾Reduces support costs, greater customer satisfaction & loyalty, and improved perception of the brand ¾Impro Impr v o es v cus
t cus omer t s omer ' tol to e l r e a r n a ce c of business
t tha conflict with their personal goals
Service design: g Key y benefits And more
specifically: specific ¾Everyone, like it or not, is a service provider ¾The inclusion of good customer service is becoming a key differentiator for any type of organisation, be it product or ser i v ce b ‐ d ase . In our new economy and i soc al sy t s em it i s th e whole experience, before, during or after the actual selling that really counts. ¾Customers are willing to pay a premium for products and services that tha help
make mak their
lives liv easier, easier more mor enjoy
a enjoy ble a and exciting.
Service design: g Key y benefits And more
specifically: specific ¾Innovating, redesigning and managing services represent a co c mpe o t mpe itive itiv adva adv n a t n ag t e ag for modern
businesses and public
or sect organisations. ¾H l e ps ti mee ng t cus omers’ rising expect t a i tions of h c oice d an quality ¾Helps make use of the technologies’ revolution, that multiplies the possibilities for creating, delivering and consuming services ¾Helps answering the pressing environmental, social and economic challenges to sustainability
Service design: g Case study Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, a project by Maya design A strategic design project : ¾in ¾ t in e t rior e re d re es e i s gn g ¾wayfinding ¾web site ¾and the library catalog and thus is a service design project as it dealt with several touch points and the customer journey, but i w h t a strong focus on information architecture. http://www.maya.com/portfolio/carnegie‐library MAYA Design, Inc. / SouthSide Works, Building 2, Suite 300 2730 Sidney Street / Pittsburgh, PA 15203 /+1 412‐488‐2900
Design g thinking What is the meta‐trend & concept behind such practices as UX d
i es gn & ser i v ce d i es ? gn Design thinking, a way for solving all kinds of problems using design tools t & methodologies me . Often also referred to as “design thinking in business”. It’s about a methodology, but also about a mindset and about a changing paradigm in management theory, moving from the traditional top‐down and quantitative approach to a more bottom‐up, qualitative approach in innovation & transformation processes. It’s a new design discipline that builds on traditional design skills to address social and economic issues.
Design thinking: Charact Char e act ris e t ris ics t Good design
crea cr t ea e t s products pr , services v , spaces, int in e t ra r ctions and experiences that not only satisfy a function or solve a problem, but that are also desirable, aspirational, compelling and delightful. These qualities can be used by organisations in both the public and private sector which are seeking to transform the way in which they connect to individuals. It’s a process that can be applied to almost any problem. Benefits: ¾placing the person – the ‘user’ – at the heart of a solution; ¾a means for experts to collaborate equally on complex issues; ¾a rapid, iterative process that can adapt to changing circumstances; ¾and a hi hl g y creative approach to problem‐solving that leads to pr i act l ca & innovative everyday solutions.
Design thinking: Charact Char e act ris e t ris ics t The main
charact char e act rist ris ic of cr ea cr tivity ea & design
thinking is the ability of
divergent thinking, bringing different approaches together to find new solutions for complex and ill‐defined problems. B‐school meets D‐school (Or left‐brainers meet right‐brainers). Design schools create the tools of transformation and graduate the people to implement them.
Design thinking: Charact Char e act ris e t ris ics t Design Thinking
is a fo c fo u c s on sy nt n h t esis rat ra her than analys analy is s (“Multidisciplinarity” , “Get the big picture”) Designers Designer problem pr ‐solve solv holistica holis lly, not in a linear
fash s io i n. While the scientific method for problem solving uses problem‐focused strategies and analysis, designers use solution‐focused strategies and synthesis. Good Design Thinking is the ability to see things not readily apparent to others (and that's where market differentiation can occur). It's the ability to see the 'edges' of something, to find shape and form in a mass of stuff. It's the ability to see things differently – to see the implicit and make it explicit.
Design thinking: Charact Char e act ris e t ris ics t Design Thinking
it is not a ma
t ma t t er t of sa ving sa money mone or
"c on "c tr on olling" tr risks risk . It is about survival and being truly honest with customers. A design
‐driven driv approach appr to cr ea cr ting ea something some new ne fav
o fav rs o a qualita qualit t a iv t e iv approach over a data‐driven approach. Rather than amassing mounds of data from customer and market research, you go out and observe people to understand their lives and needs and how products could fit into them (Ethnography). building empathy with customers.
Design thinking: Charact Char e act ris e t ris ics t Design Thinking helps p transform existing conditions into preferred ones, ,thus improving the future. There are no judgements in design thinking. This eliminates the fear of failure and encourages maximum input and participation. Wild ideas are welcome, since these often lead to the most creative solutions. Eve Ev ryo y ne is a designer
, and design thinking is a way to
methodologies to any of life's as well as public & business organisation's situations. (‐> Service design, social design, process design, decision‐making design, business model design, product design, web design, etc.)
Design thinking: Process Pr EXPLORATORY MINDSET Deci i s on mindset: "I am i go ng to iden if t y all h t e altern i at ves, i we h g h t i e r consequences, and choose one.“ Design g mindset: "Many of the alternatives are yet y to be discovered, and the true consequences of choosing any of them are difficult to be sure of; let's iteratively explore the possibilities together, discovering new ones and choosing as best we can at each step.“ DESIGN PROCESS Design thinking is built on confidence in The Design Process: ¾understand the context you are addressing ‐‐ the people, relevant activities and environments ‐ the forces at work must necessarily shape any workable solution ¾try to conceive something that might serve the situation you've started to understand ¾embody ¾ the pote pot n e t n ial t solution in some for fo m tha
t tha lets le you yo put it int in o t the target rge context and see how it works ¾this takes you back to the "understand" step, and around you go again.
Design thinking: Process Pr Design thinking norms Process Observe & Ideate & Prototype Implement Define Choose Research Co‐create & test & learn Characteristics of tools & methods Think visually – Tell stories
Design thinking: Think visually & t ell t s t s ories t
Design thinker think s: er Skill se ts se ¾Empathy ¾Integrative thinking ¾Optimism ¾Experimentalism ¾Collaboration Source: http://www.ideo.com/images/uploads/news/pdfs/IDEO_HBR_Design_Thinking.pdf It’s about how to use product, communication, interaction and spatial designers’ core skills to transform the ways in which the public interacts with systems, services, organisations and policies.
Design thinker think s: er Skill se ts se E t mpa h thy ¾Ability to imagine the world from multiple perspectives – those of colleagues, clients, end users and customers ¾“People first” approach: imagine solutions that are inherently desirable and meet explicit and latent needs. ¾Notice things instantly that others don’t see (Ethnography)
Design thinker think s: er Skill se ts se I t n egr t a i tive thinki king ¾Not only relying on analytical processes (that produce either/or choices) ¾But also
seeing the salient – and sometimes some contra r dic i to t ry – aspects of a
confounding problem and creating novel solutions that go beyond and dramatically improve on exiting alternatives. Optimism ¾No ma
t ma t t er t how challenging
the const s ra r int i s of a give giv n problem pr , at least leas one potential solution is better then the existing ones.
Design thinker think s: er Skill se ts se Experi t men l a ilism ¾Significant innovations don’t come from incremental tweaks. Design thinkers pose questions and explore constraints in creative ways that progr pr e ogr ss in entir en e tir ly new ne dire dir ctions. Collaboration ¾increasing incr comp m le l x e i x t i y of pr oducts pr , services v , and exp ex eri r e i nces ¾ replaced the myth of the lone creative genius with the reality of the enthusias en t thusias ic multidisciplinary co c llabora llabor t a o t r. ¾design thinkers don’t simply work alongside other disciplines; many of them have significant experience in more than one & are used to working in multidisciplinary teams.
Design thinking: Skill se ts se "T‐shaped” people They have a principal skill that describes the vertical leg of the T ‐‐ they're mechanical engineers or industrial designers. But they are so empathetic that they can branch out into other skills, such as anthropology, and do them as well. They are able to explore insights from many different perspectives and recognise patterns of behavior beha that tha point poin to
Design thinking: Summarising ¾Design thinking is a new mindset & set of methods (inspired by traditional design theory) for solving today’s pressing economic, social & environmental problems, as opposed, but also as in addition to, the traditional analytical and quantitative methods. ¾It ¾ is a human‐ human cent cen er t ed er appr
oach appr , built
on empat empa h t y h & ethnogr e aph thnogr y aph , tha
t tha produces pr
new, innovative and sometimes radical solutions in a multidisciplinary & participatory way. ¾These solutions are constantly prototyped, tested and implemented in an iterative process. ¾These ¾ solutions gen ge er e a r te a cons con ist is e t nt e bridg
e bridg expe p r e ie i n e c n e c s e that tha cr ea cr t ea e t new ne va l va ue u s e for fo the consumer & the provider. ¾UX design for the web & service design are practices that are perfectly in line with h t e design hi t ki n ng process & mindset. It’s about appl i y ng long known tradi i t onal design methods & processes in product design to more complex, abstract, interactive & intangible things.
Thank you for your attention. Your questions? firstname.lastname@example.org