INTRODUCTION TO FASHION TERMS Understanding fashion includes knowing many specific fashion and apparel terms. What is fashion?? The display of the currently popular style of clothing. A fashion is the prevailing type of clothing that is favored by a large segment of the public at any given time and influenced by Social, Political, Economical and Artistic media. What is Style?? A particular design, shape or type of apparel item. The style of the garment is determined by the distinct features that create its overall appearance. What is difference between style and fashion?? Styles come and go. Fashion is always here in some form. Fashion reflects a continuing process of change in the styles of apparel that are accepted
Apparel and Garment What is Apparel? Any and all men’s, women’s, and children’s wear clothing is called as an ‘Apparel’ What is Garment? Any article of apparel, such as a dress, suit, coat, evening gown or sweater. What is Garment components? Any part of garment like sleeves, cuff, collar, waistband, etc are called as Garment components .
Silhouette Silhouette: The shape of the clothing style. It is formed by the width and length of the neckline, sleeves, waistline and pants or skirts. If you were to squint your eyes and look at a suit, dress or coat, the outline (shape) of the garment would show its silhouette. Silhouettes are always changing in fashion. The general direction that a silhouette takes (wider-narrower-longer- shorter) shows a fashion trend.
Specific Silhouette Silhouette of fashion cycle Three specific silhouettes have separately rise, and fall in popularity; STRAIGHT- BELL BUSTLE-BACK TUBULER FULLNESS @ BELL
HI FASHION Hi fashion:: High fashion are the latest or newest fashions. They are usually of top quality, with fine workmanship and beautiful fabrics. Because of the quality, they are expensive. High fashion styles originate from top name designers in leading fashion cities. Details of high fashion filter down into generally accepted fashions.
Designer label… The term designer label refers to clothing, luxury automobile manufacturers and other personal accessory items sold under an often prestigious marque which is commonly named after a designer. Labels such as Gucci, Chanel, and Alexander McQueen are derived from the company's founding designer, while others do not directly refer to the company's founder: for example, Red or Dead, Miu Miu, and Chloe may be referred to as designer labels. Designer labels are not only restricted to the fashion industry. Many people consider designer labels to be a status symbol. The relationship between consumer products, and social status is highly debated A more variable range of garments still inspired by creativity and innovation. Not made for individual customers but great care is taken in the choice and cut of the fabric. These clothes are made with high quality materials and proposed only in small quantities to guarantee exclusity. They are expensive.
Avant garde Avant garde: The most daring and wild designs. They are unconventional and startling.
Mass fashion Clothes to cater to a wider range of customers, producing ready-to-wear clothes in large quantities and standard sizes. Less costly materials and construction techniques, creatively used, produce affordable high street fashion. Standardized sizing is used, trims and notions are scaled down but still try to keep the look of designer clothing. Other names for mass-market:- ready-to-wear, off the rack. e.g.:-old navy, target They copy trends and movies. They don’t work on inspiration or any specific story.
Indian markets- Global desi, Westside….
fad/craze Fad: A temporary, passing fashion. It is an item or look that has great appeal to many people for a short period of time. Ti is usually pout of the ordinary. A fad becomes popular fast, and the dies out quickly. Craze: Craze is like a fashion because it is a passing love for a new fashion. However, this has a display of emotion or crowd excitement with it. Store have a hard time keeping such items in stock because people are so eager to buy them.
classic Classic: An item of clothing that continues to be popular even though fashion changes. It is always acceptable. Classics were originally fashion items, but their general appeal and simple stylelines have kept them popular. They can worn year after year.
Examples of classics: White dress shirts, dark business suits, pleated skirts, loafer shoes, blues jeans, and salwar kameez.
Wardrobe and accecssories Wardrobe: all the apparel a person owns, a wardrobe includes all of your garments and accessories. Accessories: are the articles needed to complete or enhance your needs, like belt, ties. Hats, jewelry, shoes, gloves etc .
Tailored garments Tailored Garments: •Made by first cutting garment pieces then sewing them together to fit the shape of a body. •The first tailored garments were made when the eyed needle was invented, because seams could be sewn together. •Eg. Raymond’s Make to Measure
Composite garments -Composite: Made with a combination of tailored and draped methods. Garment parts are cut and sewn. Some parts may fit close to body, other parts may drape. (Japanese kimono, tunics, bathrobe etc)
Knock offs/high street Knock offs or high street : lower priced copies of garments. They are produced in high quantity with lower priced materials. Copies of Haute Couture garments are made in quantity by high prices manufacturer- they look like the original, but the price had been reduced. Some of the top high fashion brands are, @ Zara @ Mango @ Sisley
fashion imitator=zara It is claimed that Zara needs just two weeks to develop a new product and get it to stores, compared to the six-month industry average, and launches around 10,000 new designs each year. Zara has resisted the industry-wide trend towards transferring fast fashion production to low-cost countries. Perhaps its most unusual strategy was its policy of zero advertising; the company preferred to invest a percentage of revenues in opening new stores instead. This has increased the idea of Zara as a "fashion imitator" company and low cost products. Lack of advertisement is also in contrast to direct competitors such as Uniqlo and United Colors of Benetton
Fashion year…. There are two main seasons:- spring-summer, autumn-winter…. International fashion week happen during August till September. Designers showcase their collection six months before the season. Buyers go to fashion shows & note down the details of dresses according to their budget. Company’s profit or loss depends on buyer because they are the one responsible for taking the dresses. Merchandiser’s are the people who tells what sells more. They are the one’s when stock it. He plans the layout the store. Both require different fashion look & a new range of colors & fabric design for the time of year. •Light weight fabrics in summer.. •Heavy weight fabrics in winter..
The design plan….. Designers work a year in advance. •In the spring the studio works for the spring summer of the fall year. Each collection is researched so that all the items in it compliment each other, will be in style, & have the particular look for which the company is known for Predicting Trends:- •A designers most difficult task is forecasting what will be in style for the coming years. To do this, they know the past trends & look at repeats. They also purchase High priced trend magazines. Additional they observe what succeeded with customers in the past.
The collection….. Theme:- A designer selects a theme that represents their collection. It can be a period in history, a foreign place, a range of colors, a type of fabric. Designing:- Need to have inspiration. Can combine a collection. Designer make samples. After the groundwork is completed for the nature of the collection the designer must decide how many and what type of garments should be included in the collection. Usually they have a three month period to design, produce and publicize. The collection in time for their fashion show. Press and buyers get their first look at the collection at the show.
Apparel business term Haute couture: ”Finest Dress Making” in French. It means the high fashion industry. It refers to a group of firms or “Fashion house”, each with a designer who creates original, individually designed fashions. The designer who owns the firm in the couturier or maker. @ Haute couture fashions originate in Paris, New York, or other fashion centers. They are very expensive. They are constructed with expensive fabric, and include a great deal of hand work. They are some times; a. Custom designed made for a specific person b. Made to order, or custom made are not designed for a particular person, although they are made for a specific person. He or she places an order after seeing a sketch or picture.
About Haute couture… Haute couture is made to order for a specific customer, and it is usually made from high- quality, expensive fabric and sewn with extreme attention to detail and finished by the most experienced and capable seamstresses, often using time-consuming, hand-executed techniques. "Couture" means dressmaking, sewing, or needlework and is also used as a common abbreviation of haute couture and refers to the same thing in spirit. "Haute" means elegant or high. An haute couture garment is made specifically for the wearer’s measurements and body stance. It originally referred to Englishman Charles Frederick Worth’s work, produced in Paris in the mid-nineteenth century. In modern France, haute couture is a "protected name" that can be used only by firms that meet certain well-defined standards. However, the term is also used loosely to describe all high-fashion custom-fitted clothing, whether it is produced in Paris or in other fashion capital such as London, Milan, New York or Tokyo. To earn the right to call itself a couture house and to use the term haute couture in its advertising and any other way, members of the Chambre syndicale de la haute couture must follow these rules: Design made-to-order for private clients, with one or more fittings. Have a workshop (atelier) in Paris that employs at least fifteen people full-time. Must have twenty full-time technical people in at least one atelier (workshop). Each season (i.e., twice a year), present a collection to the Paris press, comprising at least thirty-five runs/exits with outfits for both daytime wear and evening wear.
Apparel business terms What is be spoke? The term “Bespoke” actually dates back to the 17th century. Tailors then held full lengths of cloth within their premises and a customer would come in and chose a length of fabric material for garments, it was then said to have “been spoken for”. So, a tailor who makes custom clothes individually, to your specific personal measurements, design requirements and creates a custom one-of pattern for that garment is called “bespoke”.
Apparel business terms How Be spoke is this different from “Made to Measure”? The term “made-to- measure”, refers simply to the use of basic, pre- existing template patterns, and then taking the template pattern adjusting to the measurements that have been taken from you.
Apparel business terms Ready to wear: Those garments that are mass-produced in factories. They are manufactured in quantity according to standard sizes. Each garment design has thousand made. They are all alike and are for sale in many sizes. Consumers: Those who buy and wear the garments. Consumers purchase and use apparel as well as other economics goods. Consumers are very important in determining what fashion will or will not become popular. Retail Store: Sell to consumers. They advertise and sell their items directly to the general public. Retail stores include department stores, chain and discount or factory outlet.
Fashion term-fitting Fit: The fit of a garment refers to how tight or loose it fits on the person who is wearing it. A good fit means that the garment is the right size and does not pull tightly or sag loosely when worn. Garment can be designed to be loose, semi fitted or fitted to achieve different fashion looks. @ Seams are the lines of stitches that join two garment to pieces together. @ Darts are short, tapered, stitched areas that takes out excess fabric in to it and enable the garment to fit the figure. @ Bodice: the bodice of a garment is the area above the waist, such as the upper part of a dress or jumpsuit. The bodice is usually closely fitted and is distinguished by a seam at the waistline.
Fashion introducer In fashion cycle, high fashion is first introduced by the fashion leaders. -Fashion leaders are men and women who have the credibility to start new styles • Madonna • Jennifer Lopez Every community in the world has fashion leaders. They are the ones who are first to adopt and display new styles within their special groups. As fashion comes and go, they seem to be extreme and daring when they are first introduced, smart and stylish when they are popular, and dowdy and out of date after their peak
Markets Distributor: Store goods of many brands in large quantities and sell to retails (MBO) they usually distribute their goods from large warehouses. Each item costs less from a wholesaler, but usually dozens of each must be purchased. MBO: Multi Brands outlet, mainly cater into trading of apparels of different brands, using pull system, skims and different promotions. EBO: Exclusive Brand Outlet, have their own store or franchise store where it can display and sell merchandise of its own brand category. LFS: Large Format Stores, have huge area to display different brands on one floor to improve customer/consumer walk in. Shopping Malls: LFS are part of shopping malls as well exclusive brand outlets (EBO) of different brands will available in one shelter.