WHAT IS PRAGMATICS Gro ? up 1 Asep Aprianto Bobby Sander Richo Arifianto Sandi Juandi English Language and Literature Studies Indonesia University of Education
Welcome to the World of Meaning!
The Discussion • 1 Hi H st s or t y of y of Pra r g a mati a cs • 2 Defi De ni fi ti ni ons of ons of Pra r gmati a cs • 3 Abs Ab tr s a tr c a t t t o t C o o C nt n e t xtua e l xtua Me M ani a ng 4 • Utte Utt ra r nce and a F nd or F c or e M e eani a ng ni 5 • Questi es ons & ons & Answ Ans e w rs r
1. HISTORY OF PRAGMATICS The weather is nice, isn’t it? Company Logo
Classical Pragmatics 1. Far-side Pragmatics: Beyond Saying a. Austin, Searle, and Speech Acts b. Grice and Conversational Implicatures c. Bach, Harnish, and a Unified Theory
Classical Pragmatics 2. Near-side Pragmatics a. Kaplan on Indexical and Demonstratives b. Pragmatic Puzzles of Referentialism c. Stalnaker on Context and Content
Contemporary Pragmatic Theory 1. Two models of Linguistic Communication 2. Relevance Theory 2.1 The Principles of Relevance 2.2 Implicated Premises and Conclusions 3. Levinson's Theory of Utterance-Type-Meaning 4. Literalists, Minimalists, Contextualists and Others
2. DEFINITION OF PRAGMATICS When a diplomat says yes, he means ‘perhaps’; When he says perhaps, he means ‘no’; When he says no, he is not a diplomat. Voltaire (Quoted, in Spanish, in Escandell 1993.)
Some Definition of Pragmatics • Morris, 1938. Pragmatics concerns the relation of signs to their interpreters. • Gazdar, 1979. Pragmatics = Meaning-Truth conditions. • Thomas, 1995. Pragmatics is meaning in use or meaning in context. • Yule, 1996. The study of meaning as communicated by a speaker and interpreted by a listener.
3. Abstract to Contextual Meaning • Abstract – Existing as an idea, feeling or quality, not as a material object. • Contextual – Related to the context of something.
In the Context 1. Sense 2. Reference 3. Structural Ambiguity 4. Interaction Sense, Reference and Structural Ambiguity 5. Ambiguity and Intentionality
4. UTTERANCE AND FORCE MEANING Company Logo
“She wasn’t came…”
Utterance Versus Force Meaning – Utterance Meaning • The first level of speaking meaning. • A sentence context pairing. – Force Meaning • The speaker communicative intention.
Understanding Speech atics Force Meaning Utterance Meaning of speaking in pragm Speech Paradigm Time Spent
REFERENCES THOMAS, J. (1995). MEANING IN INTERACTION: AN INTRODUCTION TO PRAGMATICS. LONDON: LONGMAN YULE, G. (1996). PRAGMATICS. OXFORD: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS.