Cultural Awareness and Business Etiquette Around the World Dr. D.E. Musielak
Business Etiquette Around the World Greetings and Introductions Forms of Address Use of Business Cards Meetings and Appointments Business Lunch or Business Dinner Negotiating and Getting Job Done Entertainment and Gift Giving Email, Telephone, Letters and Memorandum Styles of Communication
Engineering Practices Abroad Do American Engineers Work Differently from Engineers in Other Countries? YES! In many countries, hierarchy, titles, determine how the work is done. Working Hours Human Interactions Work ethics Verbal and Written Communicat ion
Greetings and Introductions Kiss, Bow, or Shake Hands? – In Germany, always shake hands, firmly but briefly. – In Japan you may greet with a hand shake, but the bow is the traditional Japanese greeting. – In Italy, Mexico, Latin America and in Spain, women may kiss on both cheeks after knowing you awhile. Forms of Address – Never Use First Names and Don’t Suggest to be Called by Yours. – In Germany, always use professional titles after Mr. or Mrs. In Mexico use “Ingeniero” followed by last name to address
a male engineer.
Business Cards In Japan business cards are extremely important. Present your card with both hands. When you receive a business card spend several seconds studying it and do not write on it or put in your pocket in the presence of the giver. In many parts of the Middle East, you should never use your left hand when giving your business card. Print your business card in English on one side, and in the language of your host on the other. Learn the protocol of giving business cards.
Doing Business in Mexico First names are reserved for family and closer acquaintances. Professional titles are a very important part of Mexican business protocol. Doctors, professors, engineers, lawyers, CPAs, and architects are always addressed by their professional titles. Use professional title followed by a surname, e.g. "Ingeniero Fernandez“, “Doctora Gonzalez”. Always use a title when addressing someone, and use the form “usted”, which means “you”.
In Mexico Anyone without a professional title should be addressed by a courtesy title such as "Mr.", "Mrs." or "Miss" followed by a surname. If you don't know someone's last name, just use the courtesy title. Mr. = "Señor = Sr." Mrs. = "Señora = Sra." Miss = "Señorita = Srita.“ For a lady, use "Señorita“ if you don’t know her marital status. Mexicans have two surnames that consist of their father's last name followed by their mother's surname. “Sr. Raul Martinez Castro”
Doing Business in Germany First names are reserved for family members and close friends. It's not uncommon for colleagues who have worked together for years not to know of each other's first names. For those without professional titles, or if you're unsure, use a courtesy title, followed by a surname. Mr. = "Herr" Mrs. (or Ms.) = "Frau"
In Germany German business culture is extremely hierarchical, so be sure that you learn and use the professional titles of those you expect to encounter. Professionals of any kind will expect to be referred to as "Herr" or "Frau", followed by the correct occupational title. An individual with a Ph.D. should be addressed as "Herr (or Frau) Doctor Professor."
In France When speaking French, use the "vous" form until you are asked to use "tu." French business culture is intensely hierarchical, so be sure to learn and use the titles of everyone you plan to encounter. In many offices, first names are not used. "Madame" is a basic title of courtesy for all women, as is "Monsieur" for men. The French will sometimes introduce themselves by first saying their surname, followed by their first name; if both sound like first names, be sure to ask.
In Russia It is appropriate, when meeting someone, to simply state your family name without any additional greeting. Learn the titles of everyone you plan to encounter, as these distinctions are very important in this culture. Russians have three names. The first name is a given name, while the last name is the father's family name. The middle name is known as a patronymic; for a man, it ends with the suffixes "vich" or ovich" meaning "son of." For a woman, the patronymic ends with "a" or "ova" which means "daughter of."
Doing Business in Japan First names are reserved for family and close friends. Don't invite others to call you by your first name. Even if you are on a first name basis with a Japanese colleague, it may be appropriate to use his or her last name in the presence of colleagues, to avoid causing any embarrassment. Use courtesy titles such as "Mr.", "Ms.", or the suffix "san", in addition to last names.
In Japan "San", an honorific attached to a person's last name, is not to be used when referring to your spouse or children. Also, it is not used to refer to someone in your company when talking with someone outside it. This is because it is considered bad manners to elevate people of your own group when speaking with "outsiders. The Japanese often use professional titles in the place of actual names, as an acknowledgment of a person's status.
Working A g broad International Short-term Assignments from your American Company Applying Directly to Companies Abroad – Internet – Networking with International Colleagues at AIAA Conferences – Getting Involved with AIAA TCs – Expatriate Programs
Importance of Learning Foreign Language “You can buy in any language, but to sell you have to speak their language” Language can be obstacle in business. Just because someone speaks English, one should remember it never is spoken nor understood quite same way as in U.S.A.
Passport to Success As aerospace companies continue to internationalize, the world is becoming smaller. If you have to work abroad….. Learn the language, the culture, the business protocol and professional practices of your host country. Respect for the local customs and cultural sensitivity will ensure your success.
Useful References Kiss, Bow, or Shake Hands: How to Do Business in 60 Countries by Terri Morrison, Wayne Conaway, George Borden, Hans Koehler, Adams Media Corp, 1995. Japan Business : The Portable Encyclopedia for Doing Business With Japan by Christine Genzberger (editor) and Edward G. Hinkelman World Trade Press, 1994. Mind Your Manners: Managing Business Cultures in Europe by John Mole, Nicholas Brealey Publishing,1996