Some Cloud Computing Use Cases, An Overview of Some Cloud Computing Standards Organizations, and a Bonus Slide. Robert Grossman blog.rgrossman.com Open Cloud Consortium September 3, 2009 Revised October 9, 2009
Outline 1. Some definitions & some high level use cases 2. Some current standards efforts 3. More use cases (community use case document) 4. De Facto Standards
If you think of standardization as the best that you know today, but which is to be improved tomorrow; you get somewhere. Henry Ford. Ford assembly plant for Model T at Highland Plant Park around 1915.
Sometimes there are reasons for a lack of interoperability… Train gauge in Train gauge in China is 1435 Russia is 1520 mm mm Change of gauge at Ussuri sk (near Vladivostok) at the Chinese –Russian border 4
Intercloud Cloud Clo 3 ud Cloud lo 2 ud Cloud lo 1 ud Clou o d d 1 Cloud lo 2 ud Clou o d Extended Standalone enterprise cloud cloud enterprise
Part 1 Some Definitions and Two Use Cases
First Two Use Cases 1. Moving an existing cloud application from Cloud 1 to Cloud 2 without changing the application. 2. Providing surge capacity for an application on Cloud 1 using any of the Clouds 2, 3, … (without changing the application). 1. Migrate / port 2. Surge / burst Cl C oud 1 Cl C oud 2 oud
Portability Cloud lo 1 ud Cloud Clo 2 ud Portability – The ease with which a system, component, application or data can be transferred from one hardware or software environment to another.
Migration Cloud lo 1 ud Cloud Clo 2 ud Migration – Moving a virtual machine (VM) between physical hosts within a network or virtual network with only a very short pause in execution (c. 50 – 500 ms). – More general y, moving a VM between clouds with only a very short pause in execution. – More general y, moving a virtual application, virtual network, etc. to a different physical infrastructure with only a very short pause in execution.
Interoperability Cloud o 1 ud Clou o d d 2 Interoperability – The ability of two or more systems, applications, or components to exchange and use information. – The ability of systems to provide and receive services from other systems and to use the services so interchanged to enable them to operate effectively together. Source: Adopted from the Open Group Architecture Framework (www.opengroup.org )
Open Systems A system that implements sufficient open specifications for interfaces, services, and supporting formats to enable properly engineered Application Software: – To be ported with minimal changes across a wide range of systems – To interoperate with other applications on local and remote systems – To interact with users in a style that facilitates user portability Source: The Open Group Architecture Framework (www.opengroup.org )
NIST Definition Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. Source: http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/SNS/cloud-computing/index.html
What Are the Layers? Platform as a Service – Cloud Compute Services – Data/Table Cloud Services – Cloud Storage Services Infrastructure as a Service – Virtual Data Centers (VDC) – Virtual Networks (VN) – Virtual Machines (VM)
Part 2. There Lots of Cloud Standards
Where are the Standards Targeted? Corporate Standards • VMware’s vCloud API Programming Guide vCloud API Version 0.8 (IaaS) • Amazon Web Services (AWS) (IaaS) • Google App Engine (PaaS) • Microsoft Azure Platform (PaaS) • Citrix (IaaS) Platform as a Service – Cloud Compute Services Large Data Cloud Interoperability – Data/Table Cloud Services Framework IF-MAP based dynamic infrastructure – Cloud Storage Services service linking IaaS and DaaS SNIA Cloud Data Management Infrastructure as a Service Interface (CDMI) – Virtual Data Centers (VDC) – Virtual Networks (VN) – Virtual Machines (VM) Open Virtualization Open Cloud Computing Format (OVF) Interface (OCCI)
Cloud Standards Group (5 of 9) Wiki at cloud-standards.org Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) – Portability for virtual machine images Storage Networking Industry Association (SNIA) – Cloud data management interface Open Grid Forum (OGF) – Provisioning and monitoring of IaaS Open Cloud Consortium (OCC) – Large data clouds, information sharing between clouds Cloud Security Alliance (CSA) – Best practices for providing security within a cloud Source: http://cloud-standards.org
Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) Over 20 vendors including: Citrix, Del , HP, IBM, Microsoft & VMware Virtualization Management (VMAN) Forum Their multi-vendor Open Virtualization Format (OVF) is the leading standard for portable virtual machines. They have an incubator for cloud www.dmtf.org
DMTF Life Cycle Management for VMs Source: DMTF Standards; A Building Block for Cloud Interoperability, Winston Bumpus President, DMTF.
Storage Networking Industry Association (SNIA) 40+ active members Working on Cloud Data Management Interface Targeted at ANSI and ISO certification Starting up a Cloud Storage Initiative There is a draft of SNIA Cloud Data Management Interface (CDMI) with reference implementation due at end of CY09 Public web page http://snia.org/cloud
SNIA Cloud Storage Containers
Cloud storage container is one of their key abstractions
Management interfaces include proprietary, Web UI, SMI-S Source: SNIA Cloud Storage presentation at Cloud Computing Summit OMG Standards in Government and NGO Workshop
Open Grid Forum (OGF) Open Grid Forum is leading organization creating grid standards with many members. Many of their standards are oriented towards universities and scientific applications. Focus is on Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) API. Goal is creation of simple RESTfull API with approximately 15 commands. Four providers and two projects to implement proposed standard. http://www.occi-wg.org
OCCI Feature Matrix Very nice feature matrix of 17 features and 11 vendors
OGF Open Cloud Computing Interface (OCCI) Goal is to create RESTfull interfaces for managing IaaS. Source: Craig A. Lee, The Open Cloud Computing Interface for Interoperability Across Clouds, July 13, 2009
Open Cloud Consortium (OCC) 501(3)(c) Not-for-profit with over 12 members, including companies, universities, FFRDCs & open source projects. One focus area is on large data cloud services. Another focus is on bridging IaaS and PaaS standards. Operates wide area cloud testbed called the Open Cloud Testbed. Developed a benchmark for large data clouds called MalStone. www.opencloudconsortium.org
OCC Large Data Cloud Interoperability large data cloud App App App App App services Clo Cl u o d Da D t a a t a Servi v ce c s s Quas a i-re -r lati a ona on l App App (Bi ( g Bi Ta T ble, e et e c. t ) c. ) Da D t a a t a Servi v ces App Ap Clou Cl d Com Co pute t Servi v ces App App (M ( a M pR p e R duce c & & Genera r l a iza z ti a on o s) App Ap Clo Cl u o d Stor t a or g a e g Se S rvice c s OCC is releasing open source reference implementations for interoperability of large data cloud storage and compute services.
Cloud Security Alliance (CSA) 20 Corporate members. CSA is an industry advocacy group, not a standards organization. Deliverables are white papers describing best practices and recommendations for secure clouds. www.cloudsecurityal iance.org
CSA White Paper
Source: www.cloudsecurityal iance.org
Part 3. Some Additional Use Cases
InterCloud Naming Use Case 3. How do we name virtual machines (VM), virtual networks (VN), and virtual data centers (VDC) so that they can be accessed between clouds? Cl C oud 2 … Cl C oud n ud Cl C oud 1
Source: Abstracted from some of the discussions at the First Infrastructure 2.0 Working Group Meeting.
Large Data Cloud Use Cases 4. Moving a large data cloud application from one large data cloud storage service to another. 5. Moving a large data cloud application from one large data cloud compute service to another. App 1 App App 2 App Larg Lar e g Dat a a t Clo a ud u Com o pute put Se S rvi v ces e Larg Lar e g Dat a a t C a loud lo S ud t S o t r o a r ge g Se S rvi v ces s
Inter-Cloud Information Sharing Use Case 6. How do we share information between two clouds with security and compliance requirements (e.g. HIPAA). Cl C oud 1 Cl C oud 2 oud
Cloud Computing Use Case White Paper End user to cloud Applications running on the cloud and accessed by end users Enterprise to Cloud Applications running cloud to end user in the public cloud and accessed by employees and ent n e t r e prirse customers Enterprise to cloud Cloud applications integrated with IT capabilities. Source: http://groups.google.com/group/cloud-computing-use-cases
Additional Cloud Use Cases Enterprise to cloud to Cloud applications enterprise running in the public cloud and interoperating with the partner apps cloud 1 Changing cloud vendors An organization using cloud services decides cloud 2 to switch cloud providers or work with additional providers Hybrid cloud Multiple clouds work ent n e t r e prirse together, coordinated by a cloud broker. Source: http://groups.google.com/group/cloud-computing-use-cases