Solutions Key Learning Objectives Who are Stakeholder and effective way to manage them Project Stakeholder Management processes Identify Stakeholder Plan Stakeholder Management Manage Stakeholder Engagement Control Stakeholder Engagement
Solutions What is Stakeholder Management? Stakeholder Management includes the processes required to identify people, groups or organizations that could impact or be impacted by the project, to analyze stakeholder expectations and their impact on the project and to develop appropriate management strategies for effectively engaging stakeholder in project decisions and execution.
Solutions Identify Stakeholders Identify Stakeholders is the process of identifying the people, groups or organizations that could impact or be impacted by decision, activity or outcome of the project analyzing and documenting relevant information regarding their interest , involvement, interdependencies, influence and potential impact on project success.
The key benefit of Identify stakeholder process is that it allows the project manager to identify the appropriate focus for each stakeholder or group of stakeholders
Solutions Identify Stakeholders - Inputs Project Charter - can provide information about internal and external parties related with the project and affected by the result or the execution of the project, such as project sponsor(s), customers, team members , groups and departments participating in the project, and other people or organizations affected by the project.
Procurement Documents – If the project is the result of a procurement activity or is based on an established contract , the parties in that contract are key project stakeholders. Other relevant parties such as suppliers should also be considered as part of the project stakeholder list.
• Organizational culture and structures • Governmental or industry standards (e.g. Regulations, product standards); and • Global , regional or local trends and practices or habits.
Organizational Process Assets – relevant to Identify stakeholder are :
• Stakeholder register templates • Lessons learned from previous projects or phases and • Stakeholder register from previous projects.
Solutions Identify Stakeholders -Tools and Techniques 1. Stakeholder Analysis - Identifies the interests, expectations and influence of the stakeholders and relates them to the purpose of the project.
There are multiple classification models used for stakeholders analysis , such as :
• Power /Interest grid, grouping the stakeholders based on their level of authority (“power”) and their level or concern (“interest”) regarding the project outcomes
• Power /Influence grid, grouping the stakeholders based on their level of authority (“power”) and their active involvement (“influence”) in the project.
• Influence/ Impact grid , grouping the stakeholders based on their active involvement (“ Influence” ) in the project and their ability to effect changes to the project’s planning or execution (“ impact “).
• Salience model, describing classes of stakeholders based on their power (ability to impose their will), urgency (need for immediate attention), and legitimacy (their involvement is appropriate).
Solutions Identify Stakeholders -Tools and Techniques 2. Expert Judgement include suggestions and recommendations of Subject Matter Experts such as :
• Senior Management • Other units within the organization • Identified key stakeholders • Project managers who have worked on projects in the same area • Subject Matter Experts in the business project area • Industry groups and consultants • Professional and technical associations , regulatory bodies and non governmental organizations (NGOs)
3. Meetings – Project meetings designed to develop an understanding of major project stakeholders and they an be used to exchange and analyze information about roles , interest , knowledge and the overall position of each stakeholder facing the project.
Solutions Power Grid Matrix
Solutions Identify Stakeholders - Output The main output of Identify Stakeholder process is stakeholder register. It contains following details.
Identification Information :
Name, Organizational Position, Location, Role in the project, Contact info
Major Requirement, Main expectation, Potential Influence
External/Internal, Supporter, Neutral, Resister
Solutions Plan Stakeholder Management Plan Stakeholder Management is the process of developing appropriate management strategies to effectively engage stakeholders throughout the project life cycle, based on the analysis of their needs, interests and potential impact on the project success.
Solutions Plan Stakeholder Management Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs • Project Management • Expert judgment • Stakeholder Plan • Meetings Management Plan • Stakeholder Register • Analytical Techniques • Procurement document • Enterprise updates Environmental Factors • Organizational process assets
Solutions Plan Stakeholder Management –Inputs Project Management Plan - The information that is taken from Project Management Plan to create stakeholder plan includes
• Life cycle selected for the project and the processes that will be applied to each phase; • Description of how work will be executed to accomplish the project objectives; • Description of how human resources requirements will be met and how roles and responsibilities, reporting relationships, and staffing management will be addressed and structured for the project; • Change management plan that documents how changes will be monitored and controlled • Need and techniques for communicating among stakeholders
Solutions Plan Stakeholder Management –Inputs
Stakeholder Register – Provides the information needed to plan appropriate ways to engage project stakeholders.
Enterprise Environmental Factors - such as organizational culture, structure, and the political climate. These factors help in determining the best options to support a better adaptive process for managing stakeholders
Organizational Process Assets – such as lessons learned database and historical information are of particular importance as they provide insight into previous stakeholder management plans and their effectiveness. These can be used to plan the stakeholder management activities for the current project.
Solutions Plan Stakeholder Management – Tools and Techniques Expert Judgment – Suggestions and guidance should be sought from groups or individuals with specialized training or subject matter expertise or insight into the relationships within the organization, such as
• Senior Management • Project Team Members • Other units or individuals within the organization • Identify key stakeholders • Project managers who have worked on the projects in the same area • Industry groups and consultants • Professional and technical associations , regulatory bodies and non governmental organizations.
Solutions Plan Stakeholder Management – Tools and Techniques Meetings Should be held with experts and the project team to define the required engagement levels of all stakeholders. This information can be used to prepare the stakeholder management plan
Solutions Plan Stakeholder Management – Tools and Techniques Analytical Techniques includes comparison of the current engagement level of stakeholder to the planned engagement levels required for successful project completion. Stakeholder engagement throughout the lifecycle of the project is critical to project success.
The engagement level of the stakeholders can be classified as follows:
• Unaware – Unaware of project and potential impacts • Resistant – Aware of project and potential impacts and resistant to change • Neutral – Aware of project yet neither supportive nor resistant • Supportive – Aware of project and potential impacts and supportive to change • Leading – Aware of project and potential impacts and actively engaged in ensuring the project is a success.
Solutions Plan Stakeholder Management - Outputs Stakeholder Management Plan is a component of the project management plan that explains the management strategies required to effectively engage stakeholders. In addition to the data gathered in the stakeholder register it provides. • Desired and current engagement levels of key stakeholders • Scope and impact of change to stakeholders • Identified interrelationships and potential overlap between stakeholders • Stakeholder communication requirements for the current project phase; • Information to be distributed to stakeholders, including language, format, content , and level of detail; • Reason for the distribution of that information and the expected impact to stakeholder engagement; • Time frame and frequency for the distribution of required information to stakeholders. • Method for updating and refining the stakeholder management plan as the project progresses and develops.
Solutions Plan Stakeholder Management - Outputs
Project Document Updates includes project schedules and stakeholder register
Solutions Manage Stakeholder Engagement Manage Stakeholder Engagement is the process of communicating and working with stakeholders to meet their need/expectations, address issues as they occur, and foster appropriate stakeholder engagement in project activities throughout the project life cycle.
Solutions . Manage Stakeholder Engagement Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs • Stakeholder Management • Communication Methods • Issue Log Plan • Interpersonal skills • Change Requests • Communication • Management Skills • Project Management Management Plan Plan updates • Change Log • Project documents • Organizational process updates assets • Organizational process
Solutions . Manage Stakeholder Engagement - Inputs Stakeholder Management Plan – This plan explains the management strategies required to effectively engage stakeholders.
Communication Management Plan – This plan explains what to be communicated o whom and at what frequency. What to be communicated to external stakeholders or not
Change log – Document changes that occur during a project. It is important to communicate . The impact of these changes on cost, time and quality should be communicated to the relevant stakeholders.
Organizational Process Assets - The organizational process assets that can influence the Manage Stakeholder Engagement process include Issue management procedures, Change management procedure and Organizations communication requirement.
Solutions . Manage Stakeholder Engagement – Tools and Techniques Communication Methods – The methods of communication identified for each stakeholder in the communications management plan are utilized during stakeholder engagement management. Based on the stakeholders’ communication requirements, the project manager decides how, when, and which of these communication methods are to be used in the project Interpersonal skills - This include conflict management skills, communication skills, ability to overcome resistance to the change.
Management Skills - The project manager applies management skills such as negotiation, facilitation and ability to influence people to coordinate and harmonize the group toward accomplishing the project objectives
Solutions . Manage Stakeholder Engagement – Outputs Issue Log – It is good to maintain an issue log for managing stakeholder issues. This log is updated as new issues are identified and current issues are resolved.
Change Requests - Managing stakeholder engagement may result in a change request to the product or the project. It may also include corrective or preventive actions to the project itself or to the interaction with the impacted stakeholders, as Appropriate
Project Management Plan updates - Stakeholder management plan or communication management plan might be updated when new stakeholder is identified Project documents updates Organizational process assets updates
Project documents updates - Project documents that may be updated include, but
are not limited to, the stakeholder register. This is updated
as information on stakeholders change, when new stakeholders are identified, or if
registered stakeholders are no longer involved in or impacted by the project, or other
updates for specific stakeholders are required.
Organizational process assets updates - The organizational process assets that may be updated include,
• Project records. Project records include correspondence, memos, meeting minutes, and other documents describing the project.
• Lessons learned documentation. Documentation includes the root cause analysis of issues faced, reasoning behind the corrective action chosen, and other types of lessons learned about stakeholder management. Lessons learned are documented and distributed, and become part of the historical database for both the project and the performing organization.
Solutions Control Stakeholder Engagement Control Stakeholder Engagement is the process of monitoring overall project stakeholder relationship and adjusting strategies and plans for engaging stakeholders.
Solutions Control Stakeholder Engagement Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Project Management Plan 1. Information Management 1. Work Performance 2. Issue Log Systems Information 3. Work Performance Data 2. Expert Judgment 2. Change Requests 4. Project Documents 3. Meetings 3. Project Management
4. Project documents updates 5. Organizational process assets updates
Solutions Inputs - Control Stakeholder Engagement 1. Project Management Plan - The information related to Project Management that will be utilized include • The lifecycle selected for the project and the processes that will be applied to each phase. • How work will be executed to accomplish the project objectives • How human resources requirements will be met, how roles and responsibilities , reporting relationships, and staffing management will be addressed and structured for the project; • A change management plan that documents how change will be monitored and controlled • Needs and techniques for communication among stakeholders
2. Issue Log – The issue log is updated as new issues are identified and current issues are resolved
3. Work Performance Data – include reported percentage of work completed , technical performance measures, start and finish dates of schedule activities, number of change requests, number of defects , actual costs, actual durations etc.
4. Project Documents – Multiple project documents originating from initiation , planning, execution , or control processes may be used as supporting inputs for controlling stakeholder engagement. These include • Project schedule • Stakeholder register • Issue Log • Change Log • Project Communications
Solutions Tools and Techniques - Control Stakeholder Engagement 1. Information Management Systems – An information management system provides a standard tool for the project manager to capture , store, and distribute information to stakeholders about the project cost, schedule progress, and performance. 2. Expert Judgement - Suggestions should be sought from subject matter expert such as : • Senior Management • Other units or individuals within the organization • Identified key stakeholders • Project Managers who have worked on projects in the same area • Subject matter experts in the business or project area • Industry groups and consultants • Professional and technical associations, regulatory bodies and non governmental organization 3. Meetings – Status review meetings are used to exchange and analyze information about stakeholder engagement
Solutions Outputs- Control Stakeholder Engagement 1. Work Performance Information is the performance data collected from various controlling processes, analyzed in context , and integrated based on relationships across areas. Thus work performance data have been transformed into work performance information.
2. Change Requests - Analysis of project performance and interactions with stakeholders often generates change requests. These change requests include • Recommended corrective actions include changes that bring the expected future performance of the project in line with the project management plan and ;
• Recommended preventive actions can reduce the probability of incurring future negative project performance.
Solutions Outputs- Control Stakeholder Engagement 1. Project Management Plan Updates – Elements of the project management plan that may be updated include :
• Change Management Plan • Communication management plan • Cost Management Plan • Human resource management plan • Procure management plan • Quality management plan • Requirements management plan • Risk management plan • Schedule management plan • Scope management plan • Stakeholder management plan
Solutions Outputs- Control Stakeholder Engagement
1. Project Documents Updates – Following documents may be updated.
• Stakeholder register - This is updated as information on the stakeholders change, when new stakeholders are identified, or if registered stakeholders are no longer involved in or impacted by the project, or other updates for specific stakeholders are required.
• Issue log – This is updated as new issues are identified and current issues are resolved.
Solutions Outputs- Control Stakeholder Engagement 1. Organizational Process Assets Updates – Following are the organization process assets that may be updated. • Stakeholder notifications - Information may be provided to stakeholders about resolved issues, approved changes and general project status. • Project reports - Formal and informal project reports describe project status and include lessons learned, issue logs, project closure reports , and outputs from other knowledge areas • Project presentations - Information formally or informally provided by the project team to any or all project stakeholders • Project records – Project records include correspondence, memos, meeting minutes, and other documents describing the project. • Feedback from stakeholders – Information received from stakeholders concerning project operations can be distributed and used to modify or improve future performance of the project. • Lesson learned documentation - Documentation includes the root cause analysis of issues faced, reasoning behind the corrective actions chosen, and other types of lessons learned about stakeholder management. Lesson learned are documented and distributed so that they become part of the historical database for both the project and performing organization.