morvil firstname.lastname@example.org Polar Bear IA in•for•ma•tion ar•chi•tec•ture n. • The structural design of shared information environments. • The combination of organization, labeling, search, and navigation systems in web sites and intranets. • The art and science of shaping information products and experiences to support usability and findability. • An emerging discipline and community of practice focused on bringing principles of design and architecture to the digital landscape. 7
morvil email@example.com The Memphis Plenary Jesse James Garrett (2009) “There are no information architects. There are no interaction designers. There are only, and only ever have been, user experience designers.”
morvil firstname.lastname@example.org “There are two kinds of people in the world…” Information Architects + User Experience Designers + Content Strategists + CEOs + Int In er fo ac r t m io a n t io D n es Arch ignerit s e c + t s Soft wa r e D e U velse o r pe Ex rs pe + r Tie e nc a e ch eD r e s sign + V e is rs ual Thinkers “…those who divide the world into two kinds of people, and those who don’t.”
morvil email@example.com Big Architect, Little Architect (2000) “The little IA “The big IA may may focus play the role of solely on an orchestra bottom-up tasks conductor or such as the film director, definition of conceiving a metadata fields vision and and moving the controlled team forward.” Eric Reiss, Euro IA vocabularies.” (2006)
morvil firstname.lastname@example.org Wurman IA in•for•ma•tion ar•chi•tect n. An individual who organizes the patterns inherent in data, making the complex clear. I mean architect as used in the words architect of foreign policy …as in the creating of systemic, structural, and orderly principles to make something work. The person who creates the structure or map of information that allows others to find their personal paths to knowledge. 11
morvil email@example.com “I’m an information architect. I map paths and places across physical, digital, and cognitive spaces.” Peter Morville “A picture can connect the strategic with the tactical in a way no other communication form possibly can.” Dave Gray 12
morvil firstname.lastname@example.org “Probably the best statistical graphic ever drawn, this map by Charles Joseph Minard portrays the losses suffered by Napoleon’s army in the Russian campaign of 1812.” Edward Tufte 19 http://www.edwardtufte.com/tufte/posters
“The map is not the territory.” Alfred Korzybski morvil email@example.com
morvil firstname.lastname@example.org “The spectral colors of red, orange, yellow, blue, indigo, and violet are produced by light of a single wavelength, and all are visible to the human eye, except for indigo, which most people can’t distinguish.” “Isaac Newton included indigo so the number of colors would match the number of known planets, notes in a major scale, and days in a week.” Search Patterns (2010) 25
morvil email@example.com “Aboriginal Creation myths tell of the legendary totemic beings who had wandered over the continent in the Dreamtime, singing out the name of everything that crossed their path - birds, animals, plants, rocks, waterholes - and so singing the worl 26 d into existence.” The Songlines by Bruce Chatwin
morvil firstname.lastname@example.org Animals use a combination of egocentric and geocentric techniques for wayfinding. 27 Ambient Findability by Peter Morville
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morvil email@example.com The Image of the City by Kevin Lynch Paths The streets, walkways, transit lines, canals, railroads, and other channels through which people move. Edges The walls, shores, fences, barriers, and other boundaries that create linear breaks in continuity, both separating and relating distinct regions. Districts Major sections of the city that possess a common identifying character (e.g., The Financial District, The North End). Nodes Intersections, enclosed squares, street corners, subway stations, and other hubs that serve as points of reference, transition, and destination. Landmarks Towering buildings, golden domes, mountains, signs, storefronts, trees, doorknobs, and other objects that serve as spatial reference points. 30
morvil firstname.lastname@example.org Global Navigation “On the Web, the map is the territory, the avigation Content Lives Here, With Contextual Navigation Inline sign is the Or Separate. Local N path.” Where Am I? earby? What's Related To What's Here? hat's N W 41
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"laptop" > $910 - $1070 > Hewlett Packard > At least 1 G mor B v > i l email@example.com 14 - 15 Inch > Bluetooth > 4 - 5 lbs
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morvil firstname.lastname@example.org The Right Way to Wireframe h T ttp h :// e ko n R igi i . g co h m t /n o W teb a oo y k
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morvil email@example.com find·a·bil·i·ty n The quality of being locatable or navigable.
The degree to which an object is easy to discover or locate.
The degree to which a system or environment supports wayfinding, navigation, and retrieval. am·bi·ent adj Surrounding; encircling; enveloping (e.g., ambient air) the ability to find anyone or anything from anywhere at anytime 49
morvil firstname.lastname@example.org Automatic Locates Schedule an "automatic locate" to see where your child is at a given time. Breadcrumbing Feature This feature is great for identifying a specific route or ser 53 ies of destinations.
morvil email@example.com 64 The URL Is Dead, Long Live Search
morvil firstname.lastname@example.org “The study il ustrates how a surprising 65% of visitors to an on-line search engine were looking for further information in relation to a product or service they saw in a television commercial or in a newspaper advertisement.” Information Architecture for Ubiquitous Ecologies by Andrea Resmini and Luca Rosati 65
morvil email@example.com “53% of US online consumers say they research products online that they subsequently buy offline.” Forrester Survey, Q1 2009 (US). “43% of consumers said they start their research online or through a mobile device, but then need to call a customer service or call center representative to complete the transaction because the necessary product or service information cannot be found online.” ATG Survey, Q4 2009 (US). “The most common problems reported by Web-to- store shoppers related to discrepancies in prices and product information across the two channels.” 66 Forrester Survey, Q4 2009 (US)
morvil firstname.lastname@example.org Over 50% of REI online business is picked up in a store. 67
morvil email@example.com Cross-Media 68 Source: Subject to Change (2008)
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morvil email@example.com Today's “service systems” may include interrelated sub-systems (e.g., person-to-person, self-service) across multiple locations, devices, and channels; and customer satisfaction is “influenced by the extent of integration and consistency” across those channels.
Bridging the “Front Stage” and “Back Stage” in Service System Design by Robert J. Glushko and Lindsay Tabas 70
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morvil firstname.lastname@example.org “After a half-hour, a three-tone alert sounds…If the bottle still has not been opened, the system makes an automated reminder phone call to the patient or a caregiver. The GlowCap system compiles adherence data which anyone can be authorized to track. That way the doctor can make sure Gramps stays on his meds.” 74
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morvil firstname.lastname@example.org Desktop Mobile Kiosk 76
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morvil firstname.lastname@example.org My Shelf 78
morvil email@example.com There is one timeless way of building. It is thousands of years old, and the same today as it has always been. The great traditional buildings of the past, the villages and tents and temples in which man feels at home, have always been made by people who were very close to the center of this way. It is not possible to make great buildings, or great towns, beautiful places, places where you feel yourself, places where you feel alive, except by following this way. And, as you will see, this way will lead anyone who looks for it to buildings which are themselves as ancient in 79 their form, as the trees and hills, and as our faces are.
The Timeless Way of Building Christopher Alexander
morvil firstname.lastname@example.org Window Place (180) Everybody loves window seats, bay windows, and big windows with low sills and comfortable chairs drawn up to them.
May be part of: • Entrance Room (130)
• Zen View (134) • Light on Two Sides (159) • Street Windows (164)
May contain: • Alcoves (179) • Low Sill (222) • Built-In Seats (202) • Deep Reveals (223)
80 A Pattern Language Christopher Alexander et al.
morvil email@example.com Scales of Experience Mike Kuniavsky 96
morvil firstname.lastname@example.org Visual Thinking Unwritten Rule #1 “Whoever best describes a problem is the person most likely to solve the problem. …or, whoever draws the best picture gets the funding.” 97
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morvil firstname.lastname@example.org 99 New Soft City by Dan Hill
morvil email@example.com 100 Urban Sensing by Dan Hill