GEO Laboratory Overview of Free and Open Source Software for Geoinformation (FOSS4G) Maria Antonia Brovel i Politecnico di Milano, DICA – GEO Laboratory
2 Short intro: GEO Lab @ PoliMI Research fields ● GIS ● Global Gravity Models ● GNSS ● SAR http://geolab.como.polimi.it/ GIS Magic Team: collaborative work
3 Topics ● WebMapping (virtual globes, multiframe,etc) ● Global Land Coverage ● Open Data Quality ● Migration from proprietary to OS Solutions ● Citizen Science and Geocrowdsourcing UN OPENGIS Geo for All
4 UN OpenGIS Capacity Building with G4A The Geospatial Information Section (UNGIS) and Information and Communications Technology Division (ICTD) of the United Nations Department of Field Support (DFS) gave birth to the UN OpenGIS Experiment
5 Geoinformatics Engineering MSc at PoliMI The Master of Science in Geoinformatics Engineering is a two years international master course taught in English for Italian and foreign students. Students with academic background in environmental science will find an introductory course in computer science, while those with a computer oriented first level degree will follow a basic course on geomatics and environmental issues. The mandatory courses cover topics such as Geospatial Data Analysis, Geographical Information Systems (GIS), Positioning and location based services, Pollution measurement and management on the Geomatics / Environmental side as well as Databases, Software engineering, Computer Infrastructures, Formal languages in the Computer Science area. Eligible courses will allow students to deepen their expertise either in computer programming and computer systems design or in geomatics and environmental issues . http://www.geoinformatics.polimi.it/
6 Overview ● The context: Future Earth and Digital Earth ● FOSS4G/OSGeo/GeoForAll ● Applications
7 The Future Earth ✔ Future Earth (FE) is a 10-year international research initiative that emerged in 2011 to create a global environmental change research platform to provide more useful and accessible knowledge for decision-makers, and to support the acceleration of the transformation to a sustainable world (Future Earth Norway Secretariat 2015; Future Earth Secretariat 2013).
✔ FE focuses on three main research themes: – Dynamic Planet; – Global Sustainable Development; – Transformations Towards Sustainability (Future Earth Secretariat 2014).
8 The Future Earth ✔ It is designed to provide a fundamental, holistic understanding of the interconnections between natural and human drivers of change, the resulting environmental changes, and their implications for human well-being (Future Earth Secretariat 2013). ✔ While FE is conceived as a global research platform for co-creating and co-developing knowledge, Digital Earth is the technological framework and infrastructure to realize the FE vision and goals.
9 The Digital Earth ✔ The Digital Earth (DE) was introduced in 1998 by Al Gore, as a tri-dimensional and multi-resolution model of the planet which make it possible to visually put in place the huge amount of geo-referenced information about the physical and social environment. ✔ This system allows the user to navigate not only in space but also in time, by having access to historical data sets and to future prevision based on social and environmental models. ✔ Gore, A., 1998 The Digital Earth: underdstanding our planet in the 21st century, ✔ http://portal.opengeospatial.org/files/?artifact_id=6210.
10 The Digital Earth ✔ There isn't a single Digital Earth.
✔ The Digital Earth is a mix of shared, multi-thematic, multi-resolution and multi-perspective archives of geo- referenced knowledge, which meet the requirements of different parties, like scientist, decision makers, cummunity and citizens. ✔ All these archives, which are updated in real-time thanks to sensor observations and information, are interconnected. ✔ The Digital Earth is based on open access and on the users participation through multiple technological platforms.
11 Geo Big Data ✔ Every day we create 2.5 trillion (1018) bytes of data. 80 % of these are already georeferenced or can be. ✔ It's a huge dataset, equal to a DVD tower that goes from the Earth to the Moon every day. Citizens as Passive or active sensors
12 Internet of Things (IoT) ✔ By 2020 there will be 26 billions of connected devices. ✔ The Internet of things is a possible evolution of the use of the Internet. ✔ The objects become recognisable thanks to the ability to communicate data about themselves and to access information provided by others.
13 Geospatial Web Users Internet Data/Objects Processing Catalogues
14 Web Geospatial S ervices NETWORK Web Service “... a software system designed to support the interoperability between network machines ” NETWORK Web Geospatial Service “...specific web services for geospatial data and information”
15 Geo Services Types Data Catalogues Processing INPUT data RASTER DATA ● VECTOR DATA GRID DATA Other geospatial data (e.g. sensors) ● PROCESSED DATA
16 Geodata Services Data ● RASTER DATA ● VECTOR DATA INTERNET ● COVERA GE DATA
17 Cartographic Mashup Server Client DIGITAL TERRAIN MODEL INTERNET BASIC MAP THEMATIC MAP
18 Geo-Catalogue Service CATALOGUE A INTERNET CATALOGUE B CATALOGUE A CATALOGUE B CATALOGUE C (Metadata) CATALOGUE C
19 Processing Service Scattered points height measures Scattered points height measures Processing: Delaunay Triangulation INTERNET TIN Triangulated Irregular TIN Network
20 Desktop GIS and Browser Facing GIS ✔ General GIS viewing, editing, and analysis on the desktop Internet ✔ General GIS viewing, editing and analysis in the browser
21 FOSS4G ✔ FOSS4G (Free and Open Source Software for Geospatial Applications) are software that provides the user the freedom to run the program for any purpose, access the source code to study how it works and change it, redistribute copies, and redistribute copies of modified versions of the software (GNU Project 1996). ✔ The software must comply with the 10 criteria listed in the Open Source Initiative: 1. Free Redistribution 2. Source Code 3. Derived Works 4. Integrity of The Author's Source Code 5. No Discrimination Against Persons or Groups 6. No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor 7. Distribution of License 8. License Must Not Be Specific to a Product 9. License Must Not Restrict Other Software 10. License Must Be Technology-Neutral
22 FOSS4G ✔ There is at least one mature sophisticated FOSS4G for every geo- technology area and geospatial information need and application. ✔ Emerging technologies such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)
and Structure from Motion are exceptions where the FOSS4G options do not have yet the maturity or robustness for routine deployment ✔ However, several efforts exist such as ● OpenDroneMap http://opendronemap.github.io/odm ● MicMac http://www.micmac.ign.fr ✔ Currently there are over 350 FOSS4G projects listed in FreeGIS http://freegis.org and Open Source GIS http://opensourcegis.org. ✔ Some of these projects have a history that dates back to the early 1980s (e.g. GRASS GIS) while others are more recent and yet have a wide and solid user base (e.g. Geoserver) .
23 General Software Evaluation Criteria Characteristics technical features reliability ease of use documentation technical support customizability and extensibility costs of training total cost of ownership support and maintenance and management requirements (e.g. budget, in-house development team expertise, long-term maintainability)
24 OSGeo ✔ In 2006 the Open Source Geospatial Foundation (OSGEO), was started. (www.osgeo.org) ✔ OSGeo is a not-for-profit organization whose mission is to support and promote the collaborative development of open geospatial technologies and data. ✔ The foundation was formed to provide financial, organizational and legal support to the broader open source geospatial community. ✔ It serves as an independent legal entity to which community members can contribute code, funding and other resources, secure in the knowledge that their contributions will be maintained for public benefit.
25 OSGeo Evaluation Criteria Characteristics Open source software is already reasonably mature (working quality code) Project already has a substantial user community Project already has a substantial and diverse developer community Project members are aware of, and implement support for, relevant standards (e.g. Open Geospatial Consortium, World Wide Web Consortium, International Organization for Standardization) Project has linkages with existing OSGeo projects Project fills a gap related to software that OSGeo supports Project is prepared to develop in an open and collaborative fashion Project has contributions and interest from more than just one company/organization (see e.g. OSGeo software metrics) Project is willing to migrate some or all of its infrastructure (code repository, web site, wiki, mailing list, etc.) to OSGeo support infrastructure, and to adopt a website style consistent with the foundation
29 GeoForAll ✔ Webinars (monthly) ✔ Newsletter (monthly) ● the lab of the month ● the geoambassador of the month ● Events ● Conferences ● Webinars ● Courses ● ... 110 labs worldwide as of 30th July, 2016 http://www.geoforall.org/
30 OSGeo Live ✔ OSGeo-Live is a self-contained bootable DVD, USB thumb drive or Virtual Machine based on Lubuntu, that allows users to try a wide variety of open source geospatial software without installing anything. It is composed entirely of free software, allowing it to be freely distributed, duplicated and passed around. ✔ Many applications are also provided with installers for Apple OSX and Microsoft Windows. ✔ It contains more than 50 geospatial applications. ✔ It contains sample datasets Contents Desktop GIS Spatial Tools Browser Facing GIS Domain Specific GIS Web Services Data Data Stores Geospatial Libraries Navigation and Maps
31 OSGeo Live
32 OSGeo Live
33 OSGeo Live
34 OSGeo Live
35 OSGeo Live
36 OSGeo Live
37 Pillars of FE vision and its seven key focal outputs
(*) INNOVATION IN SUPPORTING TECHNOLOGY
38 Geosensing the World Software function FOSS4G category FOSS4G examples Geo-referenced data Integration, processing and istSOS, 52°North SOS collection from specialized distribution of sensor data sensors (e.g OGC Sensor Observation Services SOS) Geo-referenced data Mobile and geo- Geopaparazzi, Open Data collection from mobile crowdsourcing tools Kit (ODK) devices and sensors (including citizen sensors)
39 Organizing Geographic Information Software function FOSS4G category FOSS4G examples Desktop visualization and Desktop GIS QGIS, gvSIG, uDig, basic analysis OpenJUMP, SAGA Geodata storage Spatial Database PostgreSQL/PostGIS, Management Systems SQLite/SpatiaLite, MySQL (DBMS) Spatial, MongoDB, CouchDB, Rasdaman Geodata analysis and Desktop geoprocessing GRASS GIS, R, CyberGIS processing and analysis tools Toolkit Serving geodata over the Web-based GIS (e.g. OGC GeoServer, MapServer, Web Web Services OWS) QGIS Server, deegree Cataloguing geodata Web-based catalogue GeoNetwork, pyCSW services (e.g. OGC Catalog Services for the Web CSW)
40 Geography as a way to organize information Software function FOSS4G category FOSS4G examples 2D Web visualization 2D Web clients OpenLayers, Leaflet 3D Web visualization Virtual Globes NASA World Wind, Cesium, WebGL Earth, OpenWebGlobe Web-based geoprocessing Web-based geoprocessing pyWPS, ZOO, 52°North (e.g. OGC Web Processing WPS, GeoServer, deegree Services WPS)
41 Geography as a way to organize information Software function FOSS4G category FOSS4G examples 2D Web visualization 2D Web clients OpenLayers, Leaflet 3D Web visualization Virtual Globes NASA World Wind, Cesium, WebGL Earth, OpenWebGlobe Web-based geoprocessing Web-based geoprocessing pyWPS, ZOO, 52°North (e.g. OGC Web Processing WPS, GeoServer, deegree Services WPS) Brovelli M.A., Minghini M., Moreno R. and Oliveira R., 2016, Free and Open Source Software for Geospatial Applications (FOSS4G) to support Future Earth, International Journal of Digital Earth – in print
42 Contacts Thanks for your attention! Thanks to all people of my team contributing on these topics, especially Marco Minghini and Giorgio Zamboni Politecnico di Milano Laboratorio di Geomatica – Polo Territoriale di Como Via Val eggio 11, 22100 Como (Italy) maria.brovel firstname.lastname@example.org