Imagine a future in which a device connected toyour computer can print a solid object.
Additive manufacturing or 3Dprinting is a process of makingthree-dimensional solid objectsfrom a digital model. Additive processes - laying downsuccessive layers of materialcreates an object.3 D Printers
General Principle Virtual designs from Computer Aided Design (CAD) Animation modeling software Scanning using special techniques Creates successive layers until the model is complete WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) process The primary advantage to additive fabrication - ability to createalmost any shape or geometric feature
Selective Laser Sintering Thermoplastics, metalspowders, ceramic powdersDirect metal laser sintering (DMLS) Almost any alloy metalFused deposition modeling (FDM) Thermoplastics, eutectic metalsStereo lithography (SLA) PhotopolymerLaminated objectmanufacturing (LOM)Paper, foil, plastic filmElectron beam melting (EBM) Titanium alloysPowder bed and inkjet head 3dprintingPlaster-based 3D printing (PP)Plaster, Colored PlasterVarious Technologies
Uses melting or softening material to produce the layers• Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)• Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) Lay liquid materials that are cured with different technologies• Stereo Lithography (SLA) Thin layers are cut to shape and joined together (i.e. paper, polymer,metal)• Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM)Methods Used In TheseTechnologies
Criteria For UsageThe main considerations :- Speed Cost of the printed prototype Cost of the 3D Printer Choice and Cost of materials used Color Capabilities
Molten Polymer Deposition Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) wasdeveloped in the late 1980s andcommercialized in 1990. Controlled by a Computer-AidedManufacturing (CAM) software package. Stepper motors or servo motors aretypically employed to move the extrusionhead. The molten polymer used is oftenAcrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS),Polycarbonate (PC), Polylactic acid (PLA),PC/ABS, Polyphenylsulfone (PPSU), Ultem9085 etc.
Molten Polymer DepositionWORKING MECHANISM: A plastic filament or metal wire isunwound from a coil & supplies materialto an extrusion nozzle which can turnthe flow on and off. Nozzle is heated to melt the material. The model or part is produced byextruding small beads of thermoplasticmaterial to form layers as the materialhardens immediately after extrusionfrom the nozzle.
Photo Polymerization Used to produce a solid part froma liquid in Stereo Lithography(SLA). The Objet PolyJet system uses aninkjet printer to sprayphotopolymer materials in ultra-thin layers (16 micron) layer bylayer onto a build tray until thepart is completed.
Granular Materials Binding Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), usingmetals as well as polymers (i.e. PA,PA-GF, Rigid GF, PEEK, PS, Alumide,Carbonmide, elastomers), Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS). Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is asimilar type of additivemanufacturing technology for metalparts (i.e. titanium alloys).
Jewellery Footwear Industrial design Architecture Engineering andConstruction (AEC) Automotive Aerospace Dental and Medical Industries Education Geographic Information Systems Civil EngineeringApplicationThe technology finds use in the fields of :-and many others
Reconstructing fossils in paleontology Replicating ancient and priceless artifacts in archaeology Reconstructing bones and body parts in forensic pathology To create chemical compounds, including new ones Smartphone as 3D scanner using mobile appApplication
Industrial uses Rapid prototyping Rapid manufacturing Domestic and hobbyist usesApplicationAs far as we can imagine anddesign
Printers for domesticuse Airwolf 3D Fabbster MakerBot Industries Thing-O-Matic Ultimaker Solidoodle 2 Shapercube Mosaic Prusa Huxley Afinia 3D printersRapid development of Open Source 3D printersThese printers include:-
Research Prospective Space manufacturing Architecture Online product purchase3D printing will soon allow digital object storage andtransportation,as well as personal manufacturing and very high levels of productcustomization.
Astronauts will use 3d printing machines that can make anyobject that astronauts need – even metal machine parts NASA is already testing additive manufacturing machines - 3Dprinters that create objects layer by layer - in low-gravity parabolicflights on EarthSpace Manufacturing
Industrial Revolution 2.0• London Design in the Victoria and Albert Museum• The installation was calledIndustrial Revolution 2.0: How the Material Worldwill Newly Materialize
ADVANTAGES Digital object storage Digital object delivery More local manufacturing Reduced Materials wastage Increased customization
Conclusion Three-dimensional printing makes it as cheap to create single items as itis to produce thousands and thus undermines economies of sale. It may have as profound an impact on the world as the coming of thefactory did. Nobody could have predicted the impact of the Printing Press in 1450 Steam Engine in 1750 Transistor in 1950The technology is coming, and it is likely to disrupt every field it touches.