HOW TO USE PROTOTYPING TO DEVELOP BETTER PUBLIC SERVICES. A GUIDE TO PROTOTYPING NEW IDEAS
2 3 p 4 INTRODUCTION TO PROTOTYPING p 6 CHECkLIST CONTENTS p 8 THE PROCESS DIAGRAm
p 10 DOING THE GROUNDWORk p 12 IDENTIFY OPPORTUNITY p 14 BUILD YOUR TEAm p 16 mAP EXISTING SERVICES p 18 CHOSE LOCATION TO TEST p 20 IDENTIFY TARGET USERS p 22 GENERATE IDEAS p 24 PAUSE POINT 1 p 26 PROTOTYPING PHASE 1 p 28 CREATE A SET OF PROTOTYPES p 30 TEST PROTOTYPES p 32 EVALUATE p 34 PAUSE POINT 2 p 36 PROTOTYPING PHASE 2 p 38 LIVE PROTOTYPE PLANNING p 40 ITERATION p 42 EVALUATE p 44 PAUSE POINT 3 p 45 LEARN AND EVALUATE p 46 CREATING A BLUEPRINT p 48 HELPFUL LINkS
4 5 WHAT ACTUALLY IS PROTOTYPING? HOW DO I DO IT? "When cooking a new recipe I prototype. I try the recipe on myself first, and make small Prototyping is an approach to developing, testing, and improving ideas at an early stage The prototyping process outlined in this before large scale resources are committed to implementation. It is a way of project and document was developed through the changes as I go along, adding more flavour team working which allows you to experiment, evaluate, learn, refine and adapt. Ensuring Prototype Barnet project which used this here and there, and writing in my recipe book that ideas are fully explored before any conclusions are drawn. process to build and test a proposed new what I would change next time. I'd then try the service called Community Coaches. recipe out again with some friends making the Prototyping: • Involves relevant people at an early stage Depending on what you are prototyping you changes I'd learnt the first time, and see how • Develops ideas with the people who will help you find the answers may find different stages of this process are they like it. • Makes ideas tangible and tests them more relevant than others, but the diagram I would probably just keep making small • Refines those ideas provides a framework from which you can • Informs and improves any eventual project framework for change changes to recipes until I found the perfect structure your own approach. combination of flavours. It is rare that you'd During the Prototype Barnet project, many get it right first time" WHY WOULD I USE A PROTOTYPING APPROACH? of the stakeholders felt the language around prototyping was inaccessible. So we asked some people from the council to share a story • Prototyping allows you to try out your ideas without the pressure of getting everything of where they had prototyped something in right straight away. their own life. • Prototyping also enables you to involve a wide range of stakeholders in the testing process, providing a better understanding of how your ideas will work. "I recently prototyped my journey to work. I • Compared to a pilot, prototyping is a low cost process and can be done within short to moved house and wanted to know the best route medium time-scales. in, so I tested out three modes of transport. The first day I got the train, the second day I took • Prototyping also provides an iterative learning approach so ideas can develop as you the bus, the third day I cycled. I wanted to know go along. which was quicker, cheaper, and which was most You should think about prototyping before you start thinking about piloting. Prototyping is enjoyable. Cycling turned out to be the cheapest not an alternative to piloting. It helps you build a better specification for what a pilot might and the nicest, so I've opted for that, except on be. It may even help you see that your idea isn't going to work and save you the time and cost of a pilot. Tuesdays when I need to be early, so I use the train... we test things out all the time, without calling it prototyping"
6 7 HAVE YOU GOT LOTS OF energy to drive the project forward. It is important BEFORE YOU If you have answered no, then you are HAVE YOU GOT PERmISSION to approach prototyping with a proactive 'can do' qUESTIONS ABOUT YOUR BEGIN definitely not yet ready to prototype. When FROm SENIOR mANAGEmENT attitude. Less talk, more doing. IDEA, BUT NOT LOTS OF prototyping, learning what doesn't work is TO START THIS PROjECT? just as valuable as learning what does. ANSWERS?
Yes If you answered yes to most or all of those questions
No then you are ready to crack on. HAVE YOU GOT TImE AND
No RESOURCE TO ENABLE YOU If you have answered no, it is really important If you have answered no, stop thinking you you are supported to prototype. It is have all the answers, the chances are you PROTOTYPE YOUR IDEA important to get their support at the start EmBRACE IT. don't know it all. Prototyping will help you APPROPRIATELY ? so plan a conversation with your senior kEEP GOING. learn from others and build on your existing management into the process.
Yes HAVE FUN. knowledge.
No If you have answered no, you will need time ARE YOU OPEN TO TRYING A ARE YOU OPEN TO LEARNING and you will need resources. Talk to your NEW WAY OF WORkING AND ABOUT THE GOOD, AND THE manager or the people you work with to PERSISTING WHEN IT GETS ensure that you can secure the time and BAD BITS OF YOUR IDEA? support required and run a prototyping DIFFICULT?
Yes project. HAVE YOU BEEN ASkED TO
No COmE UP WITH IDEAS FOR
No If you have answered no, then you are not CHANGE BUT YOU WANT TO If you have answered no, toughen up. It'll be yet ready to prototype. Prototyping demands EXPLORE AND TEST THESE hard, but it should be fun, and it'll definitely a mind-set that is open to learning and open be interesting! IDEAS BEFORE YOU kNOW IF to change. THEY WILL WORk? ARE YOU READY TO GET
Yes ARE YOU COmFORTABLE CREATIVE AND mAkE THINGS
No THAT THE IDEA mIGHT NOT HAPPEN? If you have answered no, you are not ready WORk? to prototype. You should only prototype
Yes once you have an idea or opportunity
No in mind. If you have answered no make sure you Barnet Council staff and partners prototyping boats.
or someone on your team has the creative
8 DOING THE GROUNDWORk PROTOTYPING PROTOTYPING- LEARN Doing upfront work to get people and ideas ready PHASE 1 PHASE 2 AND to build a specification testing the specification EVALUATE you have ideas but are unsure how each element you have a clear idea about the way the service or touchpoint of the service would function, need should function and feel, and are ready to test that to test, learn and refine the service in the real world. THE PROTOTYPING Do the models Does gathering and visuals this information created change or affect communicate my PROCESS my original ideas effectively? opportunity? TEST ThE MAP PROTOTYPES RUN SMALL PEOPLE wITh USERS LIvE AND PROTOTYPE PLAcES This document is to help you to use a prototyping cREATE A BUSINESS approach in project and change work. This was first cASE. developed for use in Barnet Council, but should be BUILD IDENTIFY cREATE OBSERvE useful for OPPORTUNITIES YOUR GENERATE PROTOTYPE GET REGULAR IDENTIFIED TARGET IDEAS SET OF AND GAIN USERS PROTOTYPES PLANNING FEEDBAck any organisation or individual with a new untested TEAM FEEDBAck idea. MEASURE The framework has been developed as a tool for Has your team ThE got the right chOOSE EvALUATE IMPAcT you to use when using prototyping in skills, ? LOcATION ThE EvALUATE TO TEST Do you TESTS AND ITERATE AS your work. SERvIcE understand how FEEDBAck IMPAcT APPROPRIATE each element of the service will This document will provide some background function? Are there information on why to use prototyping, when, what changes that can be made to do, how, and who to do it with. PAUSE POINT 1 PAUSE POINT 2 and tested out PAUSE POINT 3 Proof of Concept Build for wider engagement along the way? Decision Making PROTOTYPING THE BUSINESS mODEL
10 11 WHERE YOU ARE DOING THE MAP PEOPLE AND PLAcES GROUND WORk BUILD IDENTIFY OPPORTUNITIES YOUR GENERATE IDENTIFIED TARGET TEAM IDEAS USERS Getting people and ideas ready to prototype chOOSE LOcATION TO TEST
12 13 IDENTIFY OPPORTUNITY WHY? HOW? • Before you start a prototyping project • Give yourself time to read through any you must have identified an opportunity. previous research, and talk to any relevant You need to be able to explain what you experts to make sure you fully understand want to change, why you want to change the context of this opportunity. it, and how it will benefit service users. Better still if you can also identify what will • You might want to turn the opportunity be different as a result of the prototype. into a question or mission statement to help you frame your work. • This will help you get the project off to a good start and help shape the vision TOP TIP and objectives for your project team. Don’t rush into prototyping before you are ready. To make it work you need a good solid starting point and a clear vision for what you are trying to achieve.
14 15 DOWNLOADABLE TOOLS HOW: BUILD YOUR Think about who needs to be involved from TEAm all angles; service users, service deliverers, 1: TEAm PERSONA CARDS experts, senior leaders. 1.1 ACTIVITY SHEET • Who has knowledge and expertise in the subject? • Who are the commissioners or decision makers who will be key to making your idea happen? BUILDING A TEAm AROUND • Who will be using or delivering this idea in THE OPPORTUNITY: the future? • Who has the passion, creativity, and drive to make this project a success? WHY: WHO SHOULD I PROTOTYPE It is important to build a strong and diverse WITH? team around your opportunity, involving TOP TIP people who can offer different and relevant Try to involve everyone who will be affected. expertise. • Service users Make sure you keep the Core Project You may need to involve certain community • Deliverers team quite small. This team need to get groups to ensure they are involved in the • Commissioners their hands dirty doing the work. project from the start. You may need to • Relevant community organisations Not just sit in a room talking. involve commissioners or decision makers to It is important you get people involved ensure ideas respond to the need and will be who have the right values and attitude, affordable. You may want to involve people this is as important as their skills and who have previous experience of the subject experience. We created three team or of prototyping. persona cards to help you identify the right people for the job. Their job was to help All of these people will help give you feedback Their job is to champion the project and help Their job was to cast a critical build, run to make your prototyping a success. remove barriers. eye over the process and ask and test the prototype. challenging questions.
16 17 mAP EXISTING SERVICES WHY: To get a clearer idea of what is currently happening, where there are gaps and overlaps and what you can learn from them. It will also help inspire you about the different models currently being used. TOP TIP HOW: A lot of this information will be available Make sure you talk to people who on-line. You could also talk to expert know the area you are focussing on. individuals or organisations who would help There will be a lot of knowledge you build this picture. and information locked up inside people’s brains. And don’t just think about council services. Consider who is active in the community and where informal services might be on offer?
18 19 CHOOSE LOCATION TO TEST WHY: A test site will enable you to have one consistent place were you can run your testing. This could be a community, a building, a web site, or a department within the council. HOW: TOP TIP By having a clear idea of the opportunity you If your test-site is a physical should be able to identify a suitable test-site. place, make sure you go visit and Link with other individuals and organisations talk to people about what you are who have knowledge in the test-site to help doing. It is important that from you create the right connections. the start of your project people are kept updated on what you are doing and why. The more people who understand your objectives, the more support you will receive.
20 21 IDENTIFY TARGET USERS WHY: In order to test your idea with the right people, you must identify up-front who you will need to involve in the prototyping. While some prototyping activities could be done internally within the project team, there will be some that require a wider test group. HOW: TOP TIP Use trusted links into networks and communities to help you identify and connect Make the most of the with the right people. When deciding who to trusted links that are involve in the testing, think about; already established across communities and within • Who might be involved in the service/idea networks. You will not always in the future? be the right person • Who knows the target group well and to establish those would have insight to share? relationships. • Who has experience and knowledge that will build your knowledge of the idea?
22 23 DOWNLOADABLE TOOLS GENERATE IDEAS 2: THE 6 THINkING HATS de Bono WHY: Before you start prototyping you will need to turn your opportunity into an idea. You will not be able to prototype something that is not a defined idea. HOW: Get people within your team together to attend a brainstorming session. Use the TOP TIP research you have around your opportunity to inspire their thinking. It is really important that you don’t start prototyping too soon. Encourage the team to think differently and There is nothing wrong with generate bold and innovative ideas. You taking time to further develop could get an external facilitator to help you your thinking and define some in the session, to challenge the team to ideas before you start. think differently. You could also try running the session in a different place, somewhere people find unfamiliar and inspiring.
24 25 WHERE YOU ARE PAUSE POINT 1 MAP PEOPLE AND PLAcES BEFORE YOU START TO HOW PROTOTYPE YOUR IDEA(S), YOU BUILD IDENTIFY OPPORTUNITIES YOUR GENERATE TARGET NEED TO PROVE THE CONCEPT. Select a group of people who will be able IDENTIFIED TEAM IDEAS USERS to offer you the insight required to prove A Proof of Concept is a demonstration of an the concept. idea which is usually still incomplete. This could You will need to involve be a verbal, written or visual demonstration, and chOOSE LOcATION is used to establish whether the idea is likely to • The decision makers, the people who need TO TEST work. to give you permission to take this idea into prototyping and beyond. It is also important here to start thinking about • Investors or commissioners who would the sustainability and business model for your know if there are resources to develop idea. the idea, what kind of regulation might be PAUSE POINT 1 expected, how saturated the market is, Proof of Concept and what kind of demand there has been for similar products, as well as what sort of competition exists. Once you have proved the concept with the relevant people then the prototyping can begin.
26 27 PROTOTYPING WHERE YOU ARE PHASE ONE Building a specification TEST ThE MAP PROTOTYPES PEOPLE wITh USERS AND PLAcES The purpose of this phase is to use prototyping to test different elements of your BUILD IDENTIFY cREATE OBSERvE OPPORTUNITIES GENERATE idea in order to build a clearer specification for YOUR TARGET SET OF AND GAIN IDENTIFIED TEAM IDEAS USERS PROTOTYPES FEEDBAck your service/product. During this stage in the process you are really getting stuck into prototyping in different and chOOSE EvALUATE creative ways. LOcATION ThE TO TEST TESTS AND FEEDBAck This stage is deliberately drawn as a cycle, because of its iterative nature. You may need to go through this cycle of activities multiple times before you are ready to move into phase two. If you were designing a chair for example, this is the stage where you would test out the materials used, the length of the legs, the angle on the seat etc. You are not yet ready to build the chair in its entirety.
28 29 DOWNLOADABLE TOOLS CREATE A SET Below are two methods that have been used OF PROTOTYPES successful in a local authority context in the past. 3: STORYBOARD See it: By making storyboards you can build a visual representation of a service idea, breaking down the service into stages which help structure both your explanation of your WHY: idea, and how people feed in their ideas. In order to clarify and test out your idea A storyboard might not always be and elements of your idea with people, it is appropriate, it could be a simple sketch of important to make prototypes that bring your your idea. idea to life. Making something tangible for people to see, touch, and understand. Build it: By building low-tech models out of paper HOW: and other materials you can make a tangible product, space, or touch-point within a Firstly decide which parts of your service need service. This helps people feel and see further thought and clarification. Then decide the idea. TOP TIP which elements of the service you need to communicate and discuss with others. It Building materials can include plasticine, You could think about is important to prioritise what you want to Lego and/or cardboard. involving other support at prototype according to what you most need this stage to help you create to discover. You might be able to prototype When creating prototypes in Barnet the prototypes. A designer, everything all at once or you may need to we mocked up basic potential service for example, might be very break it down into very small chunks. environments by using Lego as service users helpful. and providers and old shoe-boxes to create You can create your prototypes in a number the rooms in which the service would be of ways, at this stage it is all about making delivered. your ideas visual.
30 31 DOWNLOADABLE • Capture key comments and insights using TOOLS film, photos, written notes, a Dictaphone, TEST AND GET drawings, or anything else which helps. FEEDBACk ON Act It: PROTOTYPES Role play can be used as a method to help 4. TESTING PLAN you and your group test out the idea. 4.1 ACTIVITY SHEET For example, if you were prototyping a new way for the customer service staff to greet 4.2 TELEPHONE TEmPLATE residence, you could get different people to role play the scenario, testing out different ways this could work. 5. mETHOD CARDS WHY: This is a useful method to use internally Testing your prototypes will help you gain if you were testing your ideas within your feedback and insight on what works well project team. and what can be improved. Feedback from the testing goes straight into re-designed prototypes. This can be a rapid process, with changes being made quickly along the way. HOW: TOP TIP Consider who you want to gain feedback Make sure you capture the from, including both service users and the feedback from stakeholders people delivering a service. At this stage use in a way that is easy to analyse the expertise in your wider stakeholder group and use. You don’t always need to help you identify the right people to test to facilitate a large testing event with. to make this work. • Think about what information you want Keep it simple. to gain from the testing and write a list to use as a reminder when undertaking the activities.
32 33 EVALUATE THIS IS THE STAGE WHERE YOU REVIEW YOUR LEARNING FROm THE TESTING, AND USE THIS LEARNING TO BUILD A GREATER UNDERSTANDING OF YOUR IDEA, AND mAkE A mORE DEVELOPED NEW SET OF PROTOTYPES. WHY: Prototyping is an iterative process, as you learn more, your idea will adapt and the testing can continue as these changes TOP TIP happen. Don’t take too long over this. This first phase of HOW: testing should feel rapid. Make sure you revisit the testing plan you After you have captured insight from the created in the previous stage. testing, you will need to come back together with your team, review the testing insights, The testing can happen many times before spot opportunities for change, and re-do you feel you have sufficient information to your prototypes. move into phase two.
34 35 WHERE YOU ARE PAUSE POINT 2 TesT The MAP proToTypes Run small PEOPLE wiTh users live AND pRototype BEFORE YOU mOVE FROm PHASE YOU ARE READY TO LIVE PLACES ONE TO PHASE TWO YOU NEED PROTOTYPE IF YOU... TO kNOW WHETHER YOU HAVE BUILD IDENTIFY Create Observe ENOUGH INFORmATION TO LIVE 1. Have a clear and complete specification OPPORTUNITIES YOUR GENERATE PrototyPe Get reGular IDENTIFIED TARGET set of and gain TEAM IDEAS USERS prototypes feedback Planning feedback PROTOTYPE. of an idea 2. Have the resource, capacity, and time, to facilitate a live test 3. Have answered most of your original ChOOSE EvaluatE questions LOCATION thE EvaluatE tEsts and sErvicE itEratE as 4. Have a few well defined questions still TO TEST fEEdback impact appropriatE to explore 5. Have senior buy-in, and agreement from key stakeholders (such as the decision makers and commissioners) PAUSE POINT 2 6. Understand the sustainability and Build for wider engagement business model. Live prototyping is a chance to build your complete idea to test its functionality and impact. It is not a pilot, but is an opportunity to better understand how a larger scale pilot would work, and how you would measure success.
36 37 WHERE YOU ARE PROTOTYPING TesT The MAP proToTypes RUN SMALL PEOPLE wiTh users LIvE AND PHASE TWO PROTOTYPE PLACES BUILD IDENTIFY Create OPPORTUNITIES Observe YOUR GENERATE PROTOTYPE GET REGULAR IDENTIFIED TARGET set of and gain TEAM IDEAS USERS prototypes feedback PLANNING FEEDBAck Testing the specification ChOOSE EvaluatE The purpose of this phase is to use all your LOCATION thE EvALUATE TO TEST tEsts and SERvIcE ITERATE AS APPROPRIATE learning from phase one to build a more fEEdback IMPAcT complete model of your service/product to test in a real situation. This is called Live Prototyping. If designing a chair for example, in phase one you would have learnt about the materials used, the length and angel of the legs, and height of the back and you are ready to build a complete chair. This phase would let you give the chair to your target consumer to test out over a period of time.
38 39 LIVE When you have identified what you want to PROTOTYPE test, think about how you will know you’ve PLANNING achieved success. For example, when live prototyping the Community Coach service one of the things we wanted to test was the support required by volunteers. Success would be that the volunteers felt supported and self-confident and did not rely on support outside of the peer group. Whilst this is happening, set up an internal WHY: meeting to plan potential business models Bring in key advisors and commissioners. Be To plan how you want to gain more detailed focussed on what data you need to collect feedback from users in a ‘real-world’ during live testing to support the business environment about what works well and what model and sut of your idea. can be improved. HOW: TOP TIP Work with your team to build a complete specification of your idea, and turn this into a When Live Testing with real people working model. This could be a product, or a it is really important that your service. communication is clear and open. Tell people what you are testing, MEASUREMENT: why and for how long. And don’t make false promises. You are Identify what you want to test and how you learning as you go and there is will do this. There may be a number of things, no guarantee that what you are and it is important that you keep focussed on testing will be a success. these throughout the testing to ensure you are structuring your learning.
40 41 ITERATION WHY: During the Live Prototyping you should still feel able to quickly redesign and improve existing prototypes based on people’s feedback and your observations. HOW: TOP TIP Consider what is the best way to gain feedback on what works well and what can If you engage many people in testing be improved. your idea, you may be getting a lot of feedback, which is often conflicting. Use different approaches to gain feedback; ask for people’s verbal feedback, watch and Take into account all feedback but observe people using the prototypes (often, make sure decisions are made based what they say, think or will do, is different to on the original opportunity how they actually interact). No service will ever please all people! Take the key insights from the feedback and think about ways to redesign the service touch-point accordingly.
42 43 EVALUATE AGAINST ORIGINAL TESTING PLAN WHY: At this final stage you are in a position to pull There will be a few conclusions to this all your learning together from phase one and session; two and make decisions about what your product or service should be and how 1. You have sufficient information and it should work. insight in order to build a final blueprint or business plan for your idea. This will move you to Pause Point Three. HOW: 2. You identify some areas where more TOP TIP information is needed, and you go through Phase Two again with a revised Bring your team back together for a reviewing Make sure along the way you specification. insights working session. Include some have captured insights in a 3. There are a great number of areas in outside influence in this session to bring structured way, it will make this the idea that need further development. a fresh perspective. It is likely you will be stage a lot easier! Go through Pause Point One again immersed in the project and fresh eyes will Don’t worry if the prototype hasn’t into Phase One. be useful. worked or if a decision is made not to pursue it. The point of prototyping is to learn about what works and what doesn’t.
44 45 PAUSE 3 PAUSE POINT 3 WHERE YOU ARE YOU HAVE DECIDED TO mOVE WHEN SHARING YOU WORk FORWARD TO THE FINAL WITH THE DECISION DEVELOPmENT OF YOUR mAkERS, ENSURE YOU ARE IDEA. HAVE ANSWERS TO THE FOLLOWING qUESTIONS YOU FEEL YOU HAVE TesT The MAP proToTypes RUN SMALL SUFFICIENT INFORmATION PEOPLE wiTh users 1. How has prototyping helped shape this LIvE AND PROTOTYPE AND INSIGHT IN ORDER TO product/service and ensure it is fit for PLACES BUILD A FINAL BLUEPRINT purpose? OR BUSINESS PLAN FOR 2. What is the demonstrable value of this new product/service? BUILD IDENTIFY Create OPPORTUNITIES GENERATE Observe PROTOTYPE GET REGULAR YOUR IDEA. YOUR TARGET set of and gain 3. How can it go from a prototype to a IDENTIFIED TEAM IDEAS USERS prototypes feedback PLANNING FEEDBAck functioning product/service? 4. Who are the partners, what is the cost, YOU WILL HOWEVER NEED where is the revenue? ChOOSE EvaluatE TO RE-ENGAGE WITH THE LOCATION thE EvALUATE TO TEST tEsts and SERvIcE ITERATE AS APPROPRIATE kEY DECISION mAkERS There will be a number of things you will need fEEdback IMPAcT to demonstrate before building your business AT THIS POINT TO ENSURE plan; the Business Planning tool in the next THAT THERE IS BUY-IN AND section should help you. SUPPORT FOR TAkING PAUSE POINT 3 YOUR IDEA OUT OF THE Decision Making PROTOTYPING STAGE.
46 47 WHERE YOU ARE EVALUATE AND TesT The MAP proToTypes Run small PEOPLE wiTh users live AND pRototype ENTERPRISE PLACES cREATE A BUSINESS cASE. BUILD IDENTIFY Create OPPORTUNITIES Observe YOUR GENERATE PrototyPe Get reGular IDENTIFIED TARGET set of and gain TEAM IDEAS USERS prototypes feedback Planning feedback MEASURE ThE ChOOSE EvaluatE IMPAcT LOCATION thE EvaluatE TO TEST tEsts and sErvicE itEratE as fEEdback impact appropriatE
48 49 e developing. DOWNLOADABLE TOOLS e service idea you ar Creating a CREATING A BLUEPRINT/ Mapping the social business model blueprint/busi- BUSINESS PLAN for your new service idea ness plan 6. BUSINESS PLAN TEmPLATE Use the tool to help you think about how you should deliver th What is the service idea? Individual Citizens 6.1 mAPPING SCALES 7.Informal Social What is the aim of the service idea? Formal Sector 5 Who in your network of partners and . suppliers are required to make your Social What are the most important things 1. Servic social enterprise work? e Private Sector
your social enterprise must do in order P Sector ro 3. How do you to work? positions
Public g 2 e . t U p s WHY: e e What is the value your social o r p
le on enterprise of Sector Individual Segm Customers fers? bo e a n r t Citizens d s ? Customers How do you market your social Who are the different user enterprise to potential users? groups that your social This stage will enable you to structure a Ownership Informal enterprise aims to reach? Social Customers Customers plan for turning your product/service into a Who should own and Sector functioning model. deliver the service? Formal Social Private Sector Customers Sector Public Beneﬁciaries HOW: Sector Individual Citizens Beneﬁciaries You should have pulled together the insights Funding Informal 6. from the prototyping and testing and made Social Who should pay for decisions on the final design. the service? Formal Sector 4. How Social do What yo are u the
most important resources Private Sector you require to make your social kee TOP TIP p people on enterprise work? Sector
Use the Business Planning tool below to help Public board Consider what information ? How do you communicate with your frame your insights. Sector Customers Individual current users to deliver your social you need to communicate Citizens enterprise? which is critical to the Liability Informal Customers business model, don’t try Social Who should be - and squeeze everything Formal Sector responsible for the into the final plan. service and any safe ding? Social guar Beneﬁciaries Private Sector Sector Public Beneﬁciaries Beneﬁciaries Sector Beneﬁciaries Beneﬁciaries Referal How to people ﬁnd out and get to use your service?
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