†Land area: 152,411 sq mi (394,744 sq km); †Total area: 145,882 sq mi (377,835 sq km)
Borders oJapan is an island nation meaning it shares no borders with any country.
Coastline: o34,751 km
(21,593 mi) oWater: 3,091 km ²
National Name: Nipon National Holiday: Birthday of Emperor Akihito, December 23 Monetary unit: Yen (the basic unit of money in Japan; equal to 100 sen) Regions: 47 regions; Each contains several prefectures, except the Hokkaidō region, which covers only Hokkaidō. Provinces: Japan does not use provinces anymore. However, it is split into 47 prefectures. Population (2010 est.): 126,804,433 (growth rate: -0.24%); birth rate: 7.4/1000; infant mortality rate: 2.8/1000; life expectancy: 82.1; density per sq km: 339
Ethnicity/race: Japanese 99%; Korean, Chinese, Brazil ian, Filipino & other 1% (2004) Languages: Japanese Religions: Shintoist and Buddhist 84%, other 16% (including Christian 0.7%) Capital and largest city (2003 est.): Tokyo, 35,327,000 (metro. area), 8,483,050 (city proper) Other large cities: Yokohama, 3,494,900 (part of Tokyo metro. area); Osaka, 11,286,000 (metro. area), 2,597,000 (city proper); Nagoya, 2,189,700; Sapporo, 1,848,000; Kobe, 1,529,900 (part of Osaka metro. area); Kyoto, 1,470,600 (part of Osaka metro. area); Fukuoka, 1,368,900; Kawasaki, 1,276,200 (part of Tokyo metro. area); Hiroshima, 1,132,700
Political System • Official Name: PostWar Constitution or Peace Constitution • Form of Government: Constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary government (since 1945) • Unitary System • Legislature: National Diet of Japan; two houses: the House of Representatives of Japan and the House of Councillors. • Multiparty System • Constitution: May 3, 1947
Executive Branch Head of State: Emperor Head of Government: Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda Emperor Akihito “a.k.a” Akihito Tsugunomiya
Legislative branch House of the Representatives House of Councillors (lower house) (upper house)
Parliament: • Consists of two houses: the House of Representatives (480 members) of Japan • By the Constitution, the Diet is and the House of Councillors (242 the most powerful from the three members). branches. • Both houses of the Diet are directly • The Diet may direct the Emperor elected under a parallel voting system. in the appointment and removal • The National Diet of Japan is Japan's of the chiefs of the executives legislature. and judicial members. • The Diet has the legislative function of • The Japanese parliament is called tabling and passing of Bills. the Diet. • It has several powers not given to but is • The members of the Diet are voted down by the House of Councillors, elected by the Japanese people. the House of Representatives can • Bicameral legislature override the decision of the other • The most powerful house in the chamber. Japanese Diet is the lower house
Judicial branch • Consists of several levels of • The five types of Courts are courts, with the Supreme Court present : (final judicial authority), as drawn • up on May 3, 1947. district courts • • Includes a bill of rights similar to high courts the United States Bill of Rights. • family courts • Supreme Court has the right of • summary courts judicial review. • Supreme Court • Independent of the other two • Use a modified jury system • Judges are appointed by the • Judicial system - drawn from: Emperor as directed by the • customary law Cabinet. • civil law • The highest court is the Supreme • Anglo-American common Court. law
Political Parties • A great number of political parties which represents different tendencies and ideas. • Two parties dominated the political scene: The Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) and the Socialist Democratic Party (SDPJ). • Multiparty System • The Liberal Democratic Party, LDP (center-right) • The Democratic Party of Japan, DPJ or DP (center-left)
Economy • Despite its small size, Japan is a major economic power in the modern world, it currently has the 3rd largest economy in the entire world on trailing behind only The USA and The Peoples Republic of China. • Japan has some cultural philosophies that they apply to their economy and that could possibly be a reason for much of their success in the economic sector. • For instance they have a principle called "Nemawashi" which is where before making any major change in business you gather the support and input from all those involved whether it be a manager or a low level employee, by doing this you gain their support and it makes the change that much easier. This adaptability helps them to stay competitive in the world market.
• Japan does not have much suitable land for agriculture but the land that they do use has a very high yield and most of it stays in country. Its main crop is rice and it is heavily subsidized so that they are self sufficient and there are high tariffs on any rice imported to decrease competition in the market. • Japan's largest imports are raw materials for production as wel as oil to fuel their machinery and vehicles. Another major import that can not be forgotten is the foodstuffs that they import, things such as meat and wheat which are vital because of Japan's lack of suitable agricultural land. Japan's largest import partners are The United States and The People Republic of China. • The main power behind Japan's economy is its manufacturing industry. They are world renown for being at the forefront in certain industries technologically.
• In order to support this large manufacturing industry Japan has focused on maintaining its infrastructure by pumping money into the amount of roads they have and by investing power in alternative means of energy so that it does not depend on foreign fossil fuels as much. Japan also has a very efficient high speed train industry that is famous for being nearly always on time. • Japan also exports a great deal of things as wel but by far its too largest exports are automobiles and consumer electronics. Japanese automobiles are sold worldwide and are famous for being reliable and having low cost. Japan's largest export partners are also The United States and The Peoples Republic of China. • Japan has one of the worlds largest economies and is able to do so with its mastery of manufacturing and an investment infrastructure that is unparal eled and al signs point to continued success for them in these markets in the future.
Foreign Relations • Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan • member state of the United Nations • non-permanent member of the Security Council • plays an important role in East Asia • Japanese Constitution prohibits the use of military forces to wage war against other countries. However, the government maintains "Self-Defense Forces" which include air, land and sea components. • member of the G8 and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) • developed relations with ASEAN as a member of "ASEAN plus three" and the East Asia Summit • major donor in international aid and development efforts
Foreign Relations • has territorial disputes with Russia over the Kuril Islands (Northern Territories), with South Korea over Liancourt Rocks (known as "Dokdo" in Korea, "Takeshima" in Japan), with China and Taiwan over the Senkaku Islands and with China over the status of Okinotorishima • In recent years, Japan has an ongoing dispute with North Korea over its abduction of Japanese citizens and nuclear weapons program.
EU-Japan Relations • The Japanese and European Connections have a history of close relations. • Japan and the European Union (EU) date back to 1959. They share common values and have a strong trade relationship, particularly in investment flows.
• Other than the slight time period during World War II, Japanese relations with most European countries has been real y quite strong. In fact some European nations have had established relations with Japan since the 1600’s. Both Spain and The United Kingdom first had relations with Japan in the early 1600’s. However, these relations changed with Japan’s policy shift in 1641 to Sakoku. Under this policy Japan had a closed society where no foreign relations with outside countries was accepted. During this unusual time period of a few centuries from 1641 to 1853, the only European influence was a Dutch trading post in Nagasaki. Japan’s entire society was closed off to most of the developed world at the time.
• After the Sakoku ended Japan resumed formal ties first with The United Kingdom in 1854 and followed thereafter with Germany in 1861, Switzerland in 1864, Denmark in 1867 and Spain in 1868; most of the rest of Europe followed shortly thereafter. • Relations were obvioulsy significantly strained during WWII, as the Japanese aligned themselves with Germany and Italy causing of course a significant rift between most of Europe and Japan. Post World War II ties with Japan and Europe have been on the rise. Both Japan and Europe have renewed desire for stronger economic and political relations with the each other. Although cultural ties with Japan and Western Europe grew during the 1980s, the economic connections between Japan and Europe remained by far the most important element of Japanese-West European relations throughout the decade. Events in West European relations, as well as political, economic and military matters, became topics of concern to most Japanese officials because of the long term affects for Japan.
• With these goals in mind it was that on July of 1991, Japan’s Prime Minister Toshiki Kaifu signed a joint statement of mutual relations with the Dutch prime minister and head of the European Community Council and with the European Commission president. This statement was to pledge closer Japanese-European relations on foreign relations, scientific and technological cooperation, assistance for developing countries, and efforts to reduce trade conflicts. Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs officials hoped that this agreement would broaden Japanese-European political connections and raise them above the previous trade disputes that were harbored in years past. • The relationship between the United Kingdom and Japan began in 1600 with the arrival of William Adams (Adams the Pilot) on the shores of Kyūshū. After the policy of Sakoku ended and the connections were re-established with the signing of the treaty of 1854, Japan and the United Kingdom saw the resumption of ties. Other than the broken bond of the Second World War, the mutual relations between the United Kingdom and Japan remain very strong today.