1 COMMUNICATION ACROSS CULTURE Chapter 4 Group # 4 Eraj Shamim Maryam Zaidi Mubashra Aslam Nazia Khan Salka Fareed Raheel Khan
2 Chapter 4 Prentice Hall 2003 What is Communication? “Communication describes the process of sharing meaning by transmitting messages through media such as words, behavior, or material artifacts.” Three Basic Steps : Individual Group Organization
3 CROSS- cultural Chapter 4 Prentice Hall 2003 COMMUNICATION (also frequently referred to as intercultural communication) “Its seek to understand how people from different countries and cultures behave, communicate and perceive the world around them cultures”
4 The Communication PChraptero 4 P c rentice e Hall 20 s 03 s
5 Chapter 4 Prentice Hall 2003 Noise “Anything that interferes with, slows down, or reduces the clarity or accuracy of a communication. ” Noise can be external or internal, and it can disrupt the communication process at any point.
6 Importance of Cross-Cultural Communication Cross-cultural communication in business happens between any two companies regardless of their location. To effect productive business relationships, every organization needs to be sensitive to the potential issues of cross-cultural communication
7 Prentice Hall 2003 1. Common Ground: When a company engages in cross-cultural communication, the first thing to establish is the common ground with the new business partner. It begins with the most effective ways to communicate. Breaking through on common ground can help the two sides to establish a productive dialogue that will enhance the business relationship. 2. Informational Context: Different corporate cultures require different levels of information. Developing the proper informational context is critical when communicating with a new business partner, and it begins by understanding the work culture of your business partner and how information is processed.
8 Chapter 4 Prentice Hall 2003 3. Trust: When a new business partner takes the time and effort to establish good cross-cultural communication, it helps to elevate the level of trust and respect between the two partners. Respect for other companies' business processes is critical in establishing an efficient work relationship. 4. Quality: Working within the guidelines of a new business partners corporate culture helps to improve communication at all levels of both organizations. The quality of the information improves when it is delivered in a manner that each company is accustomed to. Not only does the quality of the information passed between the two companies improve, but the quality of the relationship with clients and other vendors that are affected by the relationship also improves.
9 Cultural Variables Affecting Chapt er 4 Prentice Hall 2003 Communication On a different level it is also useful to be aware of cultural variables that can affect the communication process by influencing a person’s perceptions. Some of these variables have been identified. 1. Attitude 2. Social organizations 3. Thought patterns 4. Roles 5. Language 6. Non-verbal communication 7. Time
10 Chapter 4 Prentice Hall 2003 1. Attitudes: Attitudes underlie the way we behave and communicate and the way we interpret messages from other people. Ethnocentric attitudes are a particular source of noise in cross-cultural communication. 2. Social Organization: Our perceptions can be influenced by differences in values, approach, or priorities relative to the kind of social organizations to which we belong.
11 Chapter 4 Prentice Hall 2003 3. Thought Patterns Every culture have different thought patterns and logics towards anything vision and traditions are different from one another. Mostly depend on experience education and family background. 4. Roles: (manager’s perception) Manager reflects the culture of its own organization. How manager perceive is very important, he should properly understood all the objectives. Wrong perception result in miscommunication
12 Chapter 4 Prentice Hall 2003 5. Language: Spoken or written language is a frequent cause of miscommunication. accurate translation is a bridge to cover cultural gaps. language also conveys cultural and social understandings. 6. Time: Another variable that communicates culture is the way people regard and use time. Mono-chronic time systems It is related to time commitment . Poly-chronic time systems: Rather than giving importance to time this system gives priority to persons.
13 7. NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION: Behavior that communicates without words. As it is said: “A picture is worth a thousand words” It includes: 8. Kinesics behavior 9. Proxemics 10. Paralanguage 11. Object/material
14 1. Kinesics behavior: Chapter 4 Prentice Hall 2003 It refers to communication through body movement, postures, facial expressions, gestures and eye contact. 2. Proxemics: It deals with the influence of power and space in communication. High contact (minimizing the gaps and good understanding) Low contact (it prefers less involvement with each other)
15 Chapter 4 Prentice Hall 2003 3. Paralanguage: It refers to how something is said rather than the content. for e.g. The rate and tone of speech. 4. Object/material: Environment speaks through effects and material as how much object or product attracts the person. Such as office design, furniture, appearance, etc.
16 Managing Cross-Cultural Communication Step towards effective inter cultural communication includes 1. Developing cultural sensitivity 2. Careful encoding 3. Selective transmission 4. Careful decoding of feedback 5. Follow-up actions
17 1. Cultural Sensitivity : Encode the message in a form that will most likely be understood as it is intended This means the manager must: Be aware of their own culture The recipient’s culture The expectations surrounding the situation
18 2. Careful Encoding : The sender must consider the receiver’s frame of reference to make the best choice regarding Words Pictures Gestures Remember that language translation is only part of the process, consider the nonverbal language as well
19 3. Selective Transmission : The channel medium should be chosen after considering: The nature of the message Level of importance Context and expectations of the receiver Timing involved Personal interactions
20 4. Careful Decoding of Feedback: Best means for obtaining accurate feedback is face-to-face interactions Best means for avoiding miscommunication is to improve your own listening and observation skills Three types of miscommunications: Receiver misinterpreted the message Receiver encoded response incorrectly Sender misinterprets the feedback
21 5. Appropriate Follow-Up Actions:(eye contact, posture, tone, etc) .Interaction posture – ability to respond in a descriptive, non- evaluative, and non-judgmental way .Orientation to knowledge – understand that your beliefs and perceptions are only valid for you and not everyone else .Empathy
22 Cultural conflict Chapter 4 Prentice Hall 2003 Jonathan H. Turner defines it as: “Differences in cultural values and beliefs that place people at odds with one another". In another words, conflict may arise whenever there are cultural differences.
23 Chapter 4 Prentice Hall 2003 Causes of Conflict
Misunderstandings through language, attitude and way of communication. Cultural ignorance and insensitivity Lack of awareness of different societal lifestyle practices Differences in cultural practice Differences in perception Misinterpretation can take place
24 Achieving cross-cultural communication effectiveness
25 Conclusion Effective cross culture communication is a vital skill for international managers and domestic managers of multi cultural work forces because miscommunication is much more likely to occur among people from different countries or racial backgrounds that among those from similar background. So it is important to be alert to how culture is reflected in communication.