The Expository Mode -voice of God- • This mode is what we identify with documentaries. • It emphasises verbal commentary – often using a narrator. • Addresses the spectator directly, with titles or voices that propose a perspective, advance an argument or recount history. • Most associated with Television News programming.
(detailed) – Expository Mode • Images become subordinate to the voice-over narration. They serve to il ustrate, il uminate or act in counterpoint to what is being said by the author. • Editing in the expository mode serves to maintain the continuity of the spoken argument or perspective. - this is cal ed evidentiary
The Poetic Mode -subjective, artistic, expression- • Stresses the lyrical, rhythmic and emotional aspect of the historical world. • Sacrifices filmic conventions for example, continuity editing and a situated time and space, to explore associations between images, objects and patterns.
The Observational Mode -window on the world- • Attempt to observe aspects of the historical world as they happen. • Typical y have no voice-over commentary, no supplementary music or sound, no intertitles, no historical reenactments, no behaviour repeated for the camera and no interviews. • Social actors behave as if no filmmakers were there.
The Participatory Mode • Involves an interview between filmmaker and the subject. – this allows the filmmaker to address people who appear in the film, formally – this is opposed to addressing the audience through voice- over commentary. • Also involves some participation from the filmmaker aswell as social actors – this gives the audience a sense of what it is like for the filmmaker to be in a given situation and how that situation alters as a result.
The Reflexive Mode -awareness of the process- • The spectator is the focus of the attention. • Speaks not only about the historical world, but about the problems and issues of representing it. • Documentaries set out to re-adjust the assumptions and expectation of its audience, not add new knowing to existing categories. • From a formal perspective – reflexivity draws our attention to our assumptions and expectations about documentary form itself. • From a political perspective – reflexivity points towards our assumptions and expectations about the world around us. • Both of these rely on techniques that attempt to jar us, and sever our engagement with the film so that we are forced to think about filmmaking as a construct. • Involves Expository; Voice-of-God narration; Images
The Performative Mode -filmmaker as participant- • Performative mode of documentary raises questions about what knowledge is. • It sets out to demonstrate how the specificities of personal experience provide entry into an understanding of the more general processes at work in society.- this is done by stressing the emotional complexity of experience from the perspective of the filmmaker. • Stresses the tone and mood, more so than arguments and evidence. • Films primarily address the spectator. • Cal s for an emotional responsiveness from us that acknowledges an understanding of the event, more so that asking us to gain knowledge from it.