DEFINITION OF ANIMATION • Basically animation provides motion/movement to still images and can provide virtual life to an object. • Animation is process of adding motion to static images by applying various techniques. • Animation is the rapid display of sequence of images of 2D or 3D art work in order to create an illusion of movement.
MODELING • The modeling problem • Modeling primitives • Polygon • Sphere, ellipsoid, torus, super quadric • Surfaces of revolutions, smoothed polygons • Particles • Skin & bones • Non-uniform rational basis spline • Approaches to modeling complex shapes • Tools such as extrude, revolve, loft, split, stitch, blend • Constructive solid geometry (CSG) • Hierarchy; kinematic joints • Inverse kinematics • Key frames
REPRESENTING OBJECTS • Objects represented as symbols • Defined in model coordinates; transformed into world coordinates (M = TRS) glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW); glLoadIdentity(); glTranslatef(…); glRotatef(…); glScalef(…); glutSolidCylinder(…);
POLYGON MODELING • The basic sort of primitive is the polygon • Number of polygons:- tradeoff between render time and model accuracy • Objects by representing or approximating their surfaces using polygons.
MESH MODELING • A polygon mesh is a collection of vertices, edges and faces that defines the shape of a polyhedral object in 3D computer graphics and solid modeling. • A mesh is a collection of vertices, edges, and faces that describe the shape of a 3D object: A vertex is a single point. (The plural of vertex is "vertices") An edge is a straight line segment connecting two vertices
SWEEP MODELING • Sweep a shape over a path to form a generalized cylinder • It is a modeling function in which planar closed domain is translated or revolved in to a solid
REVOLUTION MODELING • Revolve a shape around an axis to create an object with rotational symmetry CURVE THAT KEEPS ON ROTATING AXIS OF THE OBJECT
EXTRUSION MODELING • Extrude: grow a 2D shape in the third dimension • Shape is created with a (1D) b-spline curves • Holes are created by subtracting a cylinder • Any substance that are metallic in nature are transformed and modeled by this method
JOINING MODELS • Stitching:- It joins the two surfaces The two plane surfaces are stitched with each other • Blending:- Blending surfaces that smoothly join basic primitives such as planar facets Determines the way the primitives are joined
MODIFYING PRIMITIVES • Common set of two-dimensional primitives includes lines, points, and polygons, although some people prefer to consider triangles primitives, because every polygon can be constructed from triangles. All other graphic elements are built up from these primitives. In three dimensions, triangles or polygons positioned in three-dimensional space can be used as primitives to model more complex 3D forms.
SUBDIVISION SURFACES • Relatively new type of primitive, subdivision surface, gives you the advantages of working with polygons and the smoothness of parameterized surfaces. Set subdivision level • Can set level of polygon subdivision
SKIN AND BONES • Skeleton with joined “bones” • Can add “skin” on top of bones • Automatic or hand-tuned skinning • Bone represent set of vertices (or some other objects, which represent for example a leg).Animator controls fewer characteristics of the model • Animator can focus on the large scale motion. • Bones are independently movable.
GEOMETRIC MODEL FILE FORMATS • Can convert between formats • Converting to a common format may lose information • In this DXF export, first the holes are connected to the border. Then the concave shape is decomposed into several concave parts, which are cut into squares and then triangles • Formats are : .obj - Alias Wave front .dxf: AutoCAD .vrml: Inventor
DAG MODELS • Could use tree to represent object • Actually, a DAG (directed acyclic graph) is better: can re-use objects • Note that each arrow needs a separate modeling transform • In object-oriented graphics, also need motion constraints with each arrow • DAGs may be used as a space-efficient representation of a collection of sequences with overlapping subsequences.
MODELING PROGRAMS • Moray • Shareware • Limited functionality • Easy • Light wave, Maya • NOT shareware • Very full-featured • Difficult to learn and use
LIVE ANIMATION • Suppose you want the robot to pick up a can of oil to drink. How? • You could set the joint positions at each moment in the animation (kinematics) • Each and every motion is recored by the kinematics. • Each motion include the time and delay • Every action reflexes its body in n times
INVERSE KINEMATICS • You can’t just invert the joint transformations • Joint settings aren’t even necessarily unique for a hand position! • Inverse kinematics: figure out from the hand • position where the joints should be set. • Refers to the use of the kinematics equations of a robot to determine the joint parameters that provide a desired position of the end-effector. Specification of the movement of a robot so that its end-effector achieves a desired task is known as motion planning.
KEY FRAME ANIMATION • In traditional key frame animation the animator draws several important frames, and helpers do the “inbetweening” or “twinning” • Computer animation is also key-frame based • At key frames, animator positions objects and lights, sets parameters, etc. • The system interpolates parameter values linearly or along a curve • To get from one object pose to the next, inverse kinematics determine joint motions
MOTION CAPTURE • More realistic motion sequences can be generated by Motion Capture • Attach joint position indicators to real actors • Record live action • Sensors are attached to the person and the motions are captured by the movement
MORPHING • Morphing: smoothly shifting from one image to another • First popularized in a Michael Jackson video • Method: a combination of • Warping both images, gradually moving control points from location in first image to location in the second • Cross-fading from first image sequence to second
COMBINED APPROACHES • The expressions on the face of this virtual actress were created with a combination of facial motion capture and biomedical simulations of muscle and tissue
FUTURE SCOPE • Many other methods can be done • User interface, Interaction and Communication can be enhanced • Can be more technologically pushing the dynamic of human interactions • Lot of resources are involved in CG creation, it make's cost very high hence we can make it more cheaper • It take's more time to create by the experienced developer hence It can be made more user friendly and less complex • More addition of AI and Virtual world can get mixed with it
CONCLUSION • We have seen the procedures in making an animated images that are trending now in a graphical environment • The traditional animation techniques were not involved in it • Hence, The animation core making is done in a geometrical and in a graphical way. • The goal is to create software where the animator can generate a movie sequence showing a photorealistic human character, undergoing physically-plausible motion, together with clothes, photorealistic hair, a complicated natural background, and possibly interacting with other simulated human characters. This could be done in a way that the viewer is no longer able to tell if a particular movie sequence is computer-generated, or created using real actors in front of movie cameras. Complete human realism is not likely to happen very soon , but when it does it may have major repercussions for the film industry.