The HOW and WHY for openness in scholarly publishing and teaching materials Timothy Vollmer | Stanford School of Medicine Lane Library | October 22, 2014
What should we talk about? • What’s Creative Commons and why is it useful? • What are CC licenses and how do they work? • Who uses CC? • CC and open access publishing • CC and open educational resources • Connection between OA and OER • Q&A
Nonprofit organization Free copyright licenses Founded in 2001 Operate worldwide
Creative Commons develops, supports, and stewards legal and technical infrastructure that maximizes digital creativity, sharing, and innovation.
The problem: traditional copyright does not work well for sharing and free online collaboration.
Features of copyright today • Supposed to “promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts” • Automatic • in U.S., lasts for life of author + 70 years • bundle of rights = reproduce, make derivative works, distribute, public performance • Have to ask permission • Infringement is expensive ($750-$150k) • Safety valves (fair use) • Public domain = no copyright protection • Facts not protected
With the web, It s so damn easy to share
But how to ask permission?
How to support those that just want to share?
CC s solution: A standardized, legally robust way to grant copyright permissions to creative works.
Lowers transaction costs
CC’s legal infrastructure: (1) Copyright Licenses (2) Public Domain Tools
(1) CC Copyright Licenses
CC licenses build on traditional copyright • All Rights Reserved to Some Rights Reserved • Gives creators a choice about which freedoms to grant and which rights to keep • minimizes transaction costs by granting the public certain permissions beforehand
License Building Blocks All CC licenses are combinations of 4 Attribution elements: ShareAlike NonCommercial NoDerivatives
CC0 Public Domain Dedication (read CC Zero ) Universal waiver, permanently surrenders copyright and related rights, placing the work as nearly as possible into the public domain worldwide
CC Public Domain Mark Not legally operative, but a label to be used by those with knowledge of a work already in the public domain Only intended for use with works in the worldwide public domain
500M – 1B works
Who uses Creative Commons?
Wikipedia: Over 77,000 contributors working on over 22 million articles in 285 languages; 23 million files on Commons
FOCUS: OPEN ACCESS
By "open access" to this literature, we mean its free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited. - Budapest Open Access Initiative, February 2002
TWO PATHS GREEN = Repositories GOLD = Open Access Journals
EXAMPLES GREEN = NIH Public Access Policy GOLD = Public Library of Science
Why publish Open Access? • Aligned with goals of research and advancement of science and scholarship • OA citation advantage; academic authors write to be read • “Unexpected readers”; Ability for work to be used in other contexts; if openly licensed allows for translations, use as open educational resources such as Wikipedia • Funding mandates require openness/sharing • Retain rights to your work
FOCUS: OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES
OER are teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use and re- purposing by others. Open educational resources include full courses, course materials, modules, textbooks, streaming videos, tests, software, and any other tools, materials, or techniques used to support access to knowledge. - William and Flora Hewlett Foundation
Reuse Redistribute Revise Remix
Open Educational Resources
Why publish OERs? • Cost saving for students; rough estimate is that CC-licensed open textbooks saved $100M • Overcome barriers: language (translations possible), discovery (Google index of CC- licensed content), tech nical (move content to other formats), cultural (re-use of materials in other teaching contexts and in other parts of world) • Increased exposure to teaching/research; coordination with other faculty
Where to find (and share) freely re-usable images? • Flickr • Wikimedia Commons • Internet Archive • Digital Public Library of America • Europeana