Ben Rockwood Director of Systems Engineering The Joyent, Inc. DevOps Transformation From here to there and why Thursday, December 8, 2011
Section 1 What is DevOps?
DevOps is a cultural and professional movement. Adam Jacob
It’s not a tool (thing).
It’s not a title (person).
It’s not just dev & ops. *dev*ops*
CAMS • Culture • Automation • Measurement • Sharing John Wil is
It’s a banner for change.
Re-envisioning the IT World “We are the music makers, And we are the dreamers of dreams,” Arthur O'Shaughnessy (1874) The world is changable, if we only have the courage to break with the status quo (overcome inertia)
Pro Tip #1 DevOps is a journey of discovery, not a destination.
Pro Tip #1 DevOps is a journey of discovery, not a destination. Please join the global conversation!
DevOps Section 2 Deconstruction • Col aboration of People • Convergence of Process • Creation & Exploitation of Tools In that order, not the reverse.
Simon Sinek’s Golden Circle Why How you do it What you do Ted Talk: Simon Sinek: How great leaders inspire action”
Simon Sinek’s Golden Circle Motivation, Values, Belief Why (Both make up the limbic brain, feelings, behavior, decision making, no language) Method How What Product (Maps to Neo-Cortex; Rational Thought & Language)
Golden Circle in DevOps 1: Quality through Col aboration is our motivation Why? 2: Process & Tools is how How? What? 3: Build awesome services
DevOps Done Wrong 3: To improve efficiency of infrastructure management Why? 2: Building Process around automation How? What? 1: Automate using Configuration Management
“Why is the only true source of power. Without it you are powerless.”
Ackoff’s 5 Contents of the Mind Wisdom Understanding Knowledge Information Data
Wisdom Insight Understanding Why Knowledge How to Information Who, What, When, Where How much.. Data
Architect Wisdom Insight Systems Understanding Why Engineer Knowledge How to Jr SA/Support Information Who, What, When, Where How much.. Data
Systems Thinking Synthesis Wisdom Insight Understanding Why Analysis Knowledge How to Information Who, What, When, Where How much.. Data
Systems Thinking • Systems Thinking is concerned with the interaction of the parts to form a whole • Systems Dynamics is concerned with the feedback loops between the parts • “A system can not understand itself.” -W. Edwards Deming
Pro Tip #2 DevOps starts with why, with a holistic vision, and supports that vision with process and tools.
Section 3 Dev Ops Should be this.
Dev Ops The reality is usual y this.
The Value Stream Requirements Software Service Dev Ops
Silo’ed Priorities Get it out on time, no defects. Get it up. Keep it up. Cheap. Requirements Dev Software Ops Services +NFR Goods Services
Who’s responsible for quality?
What is Quality? • ISO-9000: "Degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills requirements." • Dr. Juran: "Fitness for use." • Crosby: "Conformance to requirements." • 6 Sigma: "Number of defects per mil ion opportunities." And you wonder how we used waterfal so long. .
What is quality real y? • The degree to which a good or service is what the customer expects it to be. • Examples: The Big Mac, Velveeta, Steak
Quality Software • Does what it purports to do • Is intuitive and easy to use • Is quick and responsive; given the task • Observable (“Whats it doing?!”)
Quality Service • Does what it purports to do • Is intuitive and easy to use (Friendly) • Is quick and responsive; given the task • Observable (“Whats it doing?!”) • Available • Self-Service if possible
“Efficiency is doing things right; effectiveness is doing the right things.” Peter Drucker
Pro Tip #3 Quality is a result effectiveness of the interactions across the entire value stream.
Section 4 Agile Manifesto Individuals and interactions over processes and tools Working software over comprehensive documentation Customer collaboration over contract negotiation Responding to change over following a plan 2001
Agile Advantages • Non-Prescriptive • Simple philosophy became an umbrella • Applies to both the developer and the product management alike • Widely known and easy to grok.
IT Service Management • Control Objectives for Information and related Technology (CobiT) • Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) for Service • IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) • ISO Standards: 20K, 27001, 38500 • NIST SP800-53, PCI DSS, FIPS 200, TIA-942
Making Sense of ITSM SOX Auditing COSO SAS70 ISO 20K Governance CobiT Framework ISO 38,500 Best Practice .... Security Controls ITIL ISO 27K PMBOK NIST SP800-53 PRINCE2 PCI-DSS ASL FIPS 200 BISL ...
Problems with ITSM • Compliance Driven • Security Focused • Complex, Complicated, and Bureaucratic • Pushed down from the top on already over- burdened staff • Consultant Heavy • Hard to grok. Most info 2nd hand.
IT Infrastructure Library
ITIL Advantage • Most complete & respected pattern for IT • Source for Change Management, Event/ Incident/Problem Management, CMDB, etc. • Provides a common terminology for IT • Chock full of good ideas! Why reinvent the wheel? Guru session on ITIL, Thursday @ 3:30!
The rules don’t make RPGs fun.. the DM does. It’s al about how you use the rules.
ITSM in Perspective • No idea should be rejected without consideration • Don’t view it as “al in” or “al out” • Educate yourself on them (many are free) and use it however is most appropriate for your team/organization
Pro Tip #4 Agile & ITSM are both sources from which to draw strength, but never at the expense of your vision.
Section 5 Cloud Changed the Game
IT Paradigm Shifts • Virtualization stops being about consolidation and begins enabling self- service, automated infrastructure without bare metal constraints • HPC becomes less interesting • Role of the OS changes • Broad platform standardization becomes realistic
Dev Paradigm Shifts • Dev can bypass IT at wil • Dev has more experience with the APIs that drive cloud than IT (typical y) • The Great Leveler; anyone can be a player • SCRUM, Continuous Integration, etc. speed up rate of deployment
“The Rift” Surfaces • Increased awareness of IT and “Web Operations” sub-culture rift • Migration of services from heavy iron into virtualized environments changes more than expected • Over-specialization becomes an issue • X86 Management is different
Rise of the Tools • Commercial & Open Source “Build your own cloud” solutions speed up • Puppet & Chef arrive alongside CFengine to tame the new complexity • “Infrastructure As Code” starts looking realistic, as tools are more about CM than deployment • SaaS al ows IT teams to offload undesirable or complex components. (ex: PagerDuty)
Vagrant • Create test/dev environments on your laptop • Configure with CM • An excellent method for using Operations “Infrastructure as Code” to empower dev, ops, qa, etc.
Pro Tip #5 The Cloud is here to stay, and its awesome. Contrary to popular belief, it wil generate MORE demand for SA’s, not less.
Section 6 Operations Management “Operations management is an area of management concerned with overseeing, designing, and redesigning business operations in the production of goods and/or services.” Wikipedia
What is Operations? Executives Finance Operations Marketing Operations is doing what you do.
OM Subjects • Operations • Quality Strategy Management • Product & Service • Forecasting Development • Wait-Line Theory • Project • Management Scheduling • • Process LEAN Measurement • Six Sigma • Financial Analysis • TOC . .and more.
A Brief History of Operations Management Understanding the genesis of the ideas we now take for granted as common sense.
Fredrick Winslow Taylor • “The Principles of Scientific Management” (1911) • Applied scientific method to work. • General y blamed for everything.
Henry Ford • Father of “Mass Production” • Built the Model T from 1908 ($850, $20K) to 1927 ($290, $3K). • No formal education, worked at Edison Co from 1891 to 1899.
Alfred Sloan • President of GM in 1923 • Did for big management what Ford did for manufacturing • Involvement with MIT later became the Sloan Business School. • BS EE from MIT
Peter Drucker • Father of Modern Management • Wrote 39 management books between 1939 and 2005
Ludwig von Bertalanffy • Father of Systems Theory • Wrote “General Systems Theory”, published in US fol owing WW2.
Russell Ackoff • Friend of Deming • Pioneer in Operations Research (OR) in 1957 and Systems Theory • (imho, the Feynman of OR) • BS Architecture, PhD Philosophy of Science
Armand V. Feigenbaum • Coined the term “Total Quality Control” (1961), which later became “Total Quality Management” (TQM) • Together with Deming and others ideas, became basis for ISO-9000 • PhD Econ MIT
The US Decline • 1973 Oil Crisis deals a nasty blow to the US Mass Production system • Japanese weather the storm thanks to Kanban (Just in Time; Toyota Production System) • In 1980’s Japanese quality puts US to shame • Deming in NBC documentary in 1980, publishes first book in 1983
Eliyahu Goldratt • Created the “Theory of Constraints” • Published in his novel “The Goal” (1984) • Applied TOC to other areas such as project management (“Critical Chain”), sales (“Mafia Offer”), etc.
James Womack, et al • Coined “Lean” in 1988 HBR Article. • Becomes “The Machine that Change the World” (1990) which brought TPS to the masses.
On the Shoulders of Giants • There is a continuous chain of ideas being condensed and re-applied again and again throughout the 20th Century. • Today its largely rol ed into “Lean” • Many of our “new” ideas are not new at al , they are new applications of proven ideas that are simply new to this field. • Many of the OM pioneers were geeks.
Pro Tip #6 “Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it” George Santayana These things aren’t going away, a little education wil serve you for years to come.
The 3 Aspects of DevOps dev>OPS DEV<ops DEV<>OPS
dev>OPS • Operations centric focus on DevOps • Adopts “Infrastructure as Code” ideal • Considers SCRUM, Kanban, and Agile Operations Concepts • Gets serious about metrics and holistic/ qualitative monitoring
DEV<ops • Development centric focus on DevOps • Adopts continuous deployment • Embedded metrics and increased focus on operational performance • Dev’s learn about operational chal enges
DEV<>OPS • Full col aboration between teams • Boundaries between them blur • Both teams are accountable, full participation in emergencies and postmortem meetings • Dev access to prod environment • Joy.
Transitioning • If at al possible, go directly to DEV<>OPS and grow together • If not, do what you can to set the stage, measure results and make al ies to build a case for management support.
The Most Powerful Tool in the DevOps Arsenal?
Other Tools to Start • Office Hours • Sit together • Join the other teams meetings • Ask lots of questions • Implement the “No Asshole Rule” • Have fun
Pro Tip #7 If it ain’t fun, it ain’t workin’.
Col aboration of People Convergence of Process Creation & Exploitation of Tools * Measure Everything * Have a systems view * Focus on effectiveness & quality * Learn from others and the past * Encourage pride of workmanship (fun)