“The hardest thing to see is what is in front of your eyes.”
- Goethe 01
These leaves could save millions of lives. These tiny little leaves have the potential to save the lives of millions of people on our planet. What kind of leaves are they? 02
The Moringa Tree Moringa oleifera They are the leaves of the humble Moringa tree. The scientiﬁc name for this tree is Moringa oleifera. 03
It is said that the Moringa tree originated in Northern India. Records show Moringa being used in Indian medicine some 5,000 years ago. 04
Varieties Thirteen Moringa species are known: M. oleifera M. arborea M. borziana M. concanensis M. drouhardii M. hildebrandtii M. longituba M. ovalifolia M. peregrina M. pygmaea M. rivae M. ruspoliana M. stenopetala As Moringa spread from India to other tropical and subtropical areas, it adapted to local conditions. Over time, these thirteen distinct species of Moringa 05 developed.
In ancient times, Moringa was known and used in traditional societies around the world. This was long before people had the tools of instant communica- 06 tion that we have today. So people must have discovered Moringa independently in all of these places, and they all found great value in it. This fact alone suggests that Moringa is worth investigating.
Ancient World Nutrition Cholera Disease Prevention Colitis Knowledge Ointment Conjunctivitis Alley Cropping Cough Fertilizer Diabetes Erosion Control Diarrhea Water Puriﬁcation Dropsy Cosmetics Dysentery Textile Printing Eye and ear infections Insecticide Fever Fungicide Glandular swelling Lubricants Gonorrhea Tanning Leather Headaches Dye Hysteria Fiber Products Intestinal worms Fences Jaundice Ornamentation & Shade Lactation Wind Barrier Malaria Cane Juice Clariﬁer Pain in joints Honey Production Pimples Condiment Pregnancy Cooking Oil Psoriasis Honey Clariﬁer Respiratory disorders Food Scurvy Semen deﬁciency Traditional medicine: Skin infections Anemia Sore throat Anxiety Sores Asthma Sprain Blackheads Stomach ulcers Blood impurities Tuberculosis Blood pressure Tumor Bronchitis Urinary disorders Catarrh Wounds Chest congestion Sources: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 People in these societies discovered a vast array of uses for Moringa. This knowledge existed in many different parts of the world—Africa, Latin America, 07 South America, India, Indonesia, and many island nations.
Scientiﬁc Knowledge Today, scientists are beginning to investigate the traditional claims about Moringa. Let’s take a look at what they have found. 08
Nutritional Value One aspect that scientists have examined is the nutritional value of Moringa leaves. 09
7 times the Vitamin C of Oranges 4times the Vitamin A of Carrots 4times the Calcium of Milk = 3times the Potassium of Bananas Tiny leaves. Enormous benefits. 2times the Protein of Yogurt Gram-for-gram comparison of nutritional data1 Nutritional analysis has shown that Moringa leaves are extremely nutritious. In fact, they contain larger amounts of several important nutrients than the 10 common foods often associated with these nutrients. These include vitamin C, which ﬁghts a host of illnesses including colds and ﬂu; vitamin A, which acts as a shield against eye disease, skin disease, heart ailments, diarrhea, and many other diseases; Calcium, which builds strong bones and teeth and helps prevent osteoporosis; Potassium, which is essential for the functioning of the brain and nerves, and Proteins, the basic building blocks of all our body cells.
It’s like growing multi-vitamins at your doorstep. Vitamin A Vitamin B1 Vitamin B2 Vitamin B3 Vitamin C Calcium Chromium Copper Iron Magnesium Manganese Phosphorus Potassium Protein Zinc Not only that, but Moringa leaves also contain a wealth of other complementary vitamins and minerals. 11
Rare for a plant source, Moringa leaves contain all the essential amino acids… ...to build strong, healthy bodies. Another important point is that Moringa leaves contain all of the essential amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. It is very rare for a veg- 12 etable to contain all of these amino acids. And Moringa contains these amino acids in a good proportion, so that they are very useful to our bodies. These leaves could be a great boon to people who do not get protein from meat.
Moringa even contains argenine and histidine— two amino acids especially important for infants. It is noteworthy that Moringa contains argenine and histidine, which are especially important for infants who are unable to make enough protein for their 13 growth requirements. Experts tell us that 30% of children in sub-Saharan Africa are protein deﬁcient. Moringa could be an extremely valuable food source.
Vitamin A Carrots 1.8 mg Fresh Leaves 6.8 mg Dried Leaves 18.9 mg 0 5 10 15 20 Vitamin C Oranges 30 mg Fresh Leaves 220 mg Dried Leaves 17.3 mg 0 50 100 150 200 250 Calcium Milk 120 mg Fresh Leaves 440 mg Dried Leaves 2003 mg 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Fresh leaves and common foods1, Dried leaves2 These graphs show the content of vitamin A, vitamin C and calcium in fresh Moringa leaves and dried leaves, compared to common foods. Except for 14 vitamin C, very little nutritional value is lost in the drying process. This is important because dried leaves can be stored for use much longer than fresh leaves, so that a supply is available year-round.
Iron Spinach 1.14 mg Fresh Leaves 0.85 mg Dried Leaves 28.2 mg 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Potassium Banana 88 mg Fresh Leaves 259 mg Dried Leaves 1324 mg 0 300 600 900 1200 1500 Protein Yogurt 3.1 g Fresh Leaves 6.7 g Dried Leaves 27.1 g 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Fresh leaves and common foods1, Dried leaves2 Here are the comparisons for iron, potassium, and protein in fresh Moringa leaves and dried leaves. Once again, we see how drying the leaves condenses 15 the nutrients, so that a large dose of nutrition can be gained from a small spoonful of dried leaf powder.
Common Names for Moringa (See more at: treesforlife.org/moringa/names) English: Drumstick tree, (Horse)radish tree, Mother’s best friend, West Indian ben Spanish: Ben, Árbol del ben, Morango, Moringa French: Bèn ailé, Benzolive, Moringa Africa Asia Dominican Republic: Palo de aceiti Benin: Patima, Ewé ilé Bangladesh: Sajina El Salvador: Teberinto Burkina Faso: Argentiga Burma: Dandalonbin French Guiana: Saijhan Cameroon: Paizlava, Djihiré Cambodia: Ben ailé Guadeloupe: Moloko Chad: Kag n’dongue India: Sahjan, Murunga, Moonga Guatemala: Perlas Ethiopia: Aleko, Haleko Indonesia: Kalor Haiti: Benzolive Ghana: Yevu-ti, Zingerindende Pakistan: Suhanjna Honduras: Maranga calalu Kenya: Mronge Philippines: Mulangai Nicaragua: Marango Malawi: Cham’mwanba Sri Lanka: Murunga Panama: Jacinto Mali: Névrédé Taiwan: La Mu Puerto Rico: Resada Niger: Zôgla gandi Thailand: Marum Suriname: Kelor Nigeria: Ewe ile, Bagaruwar maka Vietnam: Chùm Ngây Trinidad: Saijan Senegal: Neverday, Sap-Sap Somalia: Dangap South and Central America, Caribbean Oceania Sudan: Ruwag Brazil: Cedro Fiji: Sajina Tanzania: Mlonge Colombia: Angela Guam: Katdes Togo: Baganlua, Yovovoti Costa Rica: Marango Palau: Malungkai Zimbabwe: Mupulanga Cuba: Palo Jeringa While native to the Indian sub-continent, Moringa has spread throughout the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Here are some of the many 16 common names for Moringa.
Malnutrition Moringa Malnutrition map13 We are all well familiar with the problems of malnutrition in our world, and how much suffering and death result. Here are the countries with the high- 17 est rates of malnutrition. The amazing thing about Moringa is that . . . it grows in almost exactly the same places. These are the countries where Moringa grows—exactly where it is needed the most.
Leaves: Trees: Flowers: Pods: Nutrition Alley Cropping Medicine Nutrition Medicine Erosion Control Medicine Consider the Possibilities Nutrition • Disease Prevention • Ointment • Alley Cropping • Fertilizer • Erosion Control • Water Puriﬁcation • Cosmetics • Textile Printing • Insecticide • Fungicide • Lubricants • Tanning Leather • Dye • Fiber Products • Fences • Ornamentation & Shade • Wind Barrier • Cane Juice Clariﬁer • Honey Production & Clariﬁer • Condiment • Cooking Oil • Food • Traditional medicine: Anemia • Anxiety • Asthma • Blackheads • Blood impurities • Blood pressure • Bronchitis • Catarrh • Chest congestion • Cholera • Colitis • Conjunctivitis • Cough • Diabetes • Diarrhea • Dropsy • Dysentery • Eye and ear infections • Fever • Glandular swelling • Gonorrhea • Headaches • Hysteria • Intestinal worms • Jaundice • Lactation • Malaria • Pain in joints • Pimples • Pregnancy • Psoriasis • Respiratory disorders • Scurvy • Semen deﬁciency • Skin infections • Sore throat • Sores • Sprain • Stomach ulcers • Tuberculosis • Tumor • Urinary disorders • Wounds Roots: Seeds: Gum: Bark: Medicine Water Puriﬁcation Medicine Medicine Medicine Oil Sources: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 Not only are the leaves highly nutritious, but every single part of the Moringa tree has been used for beneﬁcial purposes. Here again is the list of all the many speciﬁc 18 uses people have found for Moringa. [When the words “Consider the Possibilites” appear:] It’s time that we seriously consider the possibilities that Moringa holds for beneﬁting our world.
Moringa’s Potential Moringa holds tremendous potential for serving the world in several ways . . . 19
• Human Health • Livestock Fodder • Plant Growth Enhancer • Biogas They include: improvement of Human Health; use as a Livestock Fodder supplement; use as a Plant Growth Enhancer; and for production of Biogas. 20
Human Health One of the main uses of Moringa leaves is for their nutritional beneﬁts in human health. 21
Test in Senegal Conducted by: Mr. Lowell Fuglie, Church World Service in Dakar AGADA (Alternative Action for African Development) In 1997 to 1998, a test was conducted in Senegal to examine the ability of Moringa leaf powder to prevent or cure malnutrition in pregnant or breast-feeding women and 22 their children. This test was a collaboration between Church World Service, whose Senegal representative was well-known Moringa expert Mr. Lowell Fuglie, and the Senegalese organization Alternative Action for African Development (AGADA).
Test in Senegal Results: Children maintained or increased weight and improved health. Pregnant women recovered from anemia and had babies with higher birth weights. Breast-feeding women increased milk production. This test found the following effects to be common among subjects taking Moringa leaf powder: Children maintained or increased their weight and improved overall 23 health. Pregnant women recovered from anemia and had babies with higher birth weights and Breast-feeding women increased their production of milk. This test is now being duplicated and expanded in Ghana. Further tests are needed in other countries as well.
Research in Nicaragua Some of the most ground-breaking research on new uses of Moringa has taken place in Nicaragua. 24
Mr. Nikolaus Foidl Leonardo Mayorga Mr. Nikolaus Foidl and his associate, Leonardo Mayorga, have been researching agricultural uses of Moringa in Nicaragua since the early 1990s. They have collaborated 25 with the University of Hohenheim, Germany and with Dr. Michael Kreuzer of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich.
Dr. Nadir Reyes Sánchez Dr. Nadir Reyes Sanchez is a scientist on the faculty of the Department of Animal Nutrition and Management at the Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences in 26 Uppsala, Sweden. He is also on the faculty of Animal Sciences at the National University of Agriculture in Managua, Nicaragua. Dr. Reyes has also been conducting Moringa research in Nicaragua, and is shown here on his Moringa plantation.
Intensive Cultivation Some people may wonder how a tree can supply nutrition for a large number of people. Both Foidl and Reyes have experimented with growing Moringa intensively, 27 as a ﬁeld crop.
Normally, Moringa grows in the typical form of a tree, like this . . . 28
. . . or like this . . . 29
. . . or like this. 30
But Foidl and Reyes have shown that Moringa trees can also be planted very close together as a ﬁeld crop, at a spacing as close as ten to ﬁfteen centimeters. 31
The moringa plants then grow as a ﬁeld crop, and can be harvested frequently. This technique produces a large amount of usable green matter from a relatively small 32 amount of space. Dr. Reyes has grown Moringa intensively with no irrigation and small amounts of fertilizer. He was able to harvest the leaves every 75 days—four crops in a year. He got a total of 100 tons of green matter per hectare the ﬁrst year, and 57 tons per hectare the second year. Mr. Foidl irrigated his Moringa plantation and used larger amounts of fertilizer. He reported harvesting every 35 days—nine crops per year—with a total yield of 650 to 700 tons of green matter per hectare. He says this yield has been consistent from the same plants for seven years.
Using this technique of intensive cultivation, plots of Moringa are planted on a rotation schedule, so that there is an ongoing supply of green matter. The plants are har- 33 vested 8 to 10 inches above the base, and all of the leaves and green shoots can be used. The green tops grow back in 35 to 75 days, and are ready to be harvested again.
Livestock Fodder Both Foidl and Reyes have also experimented with using Moringa leaves and green shoots as a supplement in livestock fodder. 34
Increases daily weight gain up to 32% Increases milk production 43% to 65% Mr. Foidl found that adding Moringa leaves to cattle feed increased their daily weight gain by up to 32 percent. Both Foidl and Reyes also experimented with Moringa 35 and milk cows. Foidl supplemented with 15 to 17 kilograms of fresh Moringa leaves daily, and the cattle’s milk production increased by 43 percent. Reyes supplemented his milk cows’ feed with 2 kg dry matter of Moringa per day, and milk production increased by 58 percent. Then he supplemented with 3 kg dry matter per day, and milk production increased by 65 percent. Imagine what would be possible if milk production in developing countries could be increased in this way. It could prevent untold suffering of people with protein deﬁciency.
Plant Growth Enhancer Mr. Foidl has also experimented with a plant growth spray made from the green matter of Moringa. 36
Plant Growth Spray ● Extract juice from green matter ● Dilute with 36 parts water ● Spray 25ml on each plant The process of making the Moringa plant growth spray is relatively simple, and can be done with whatever equipment is available for extracting juice from the green 37 matter and applying the spray to plants.
Here the spray is being applied to sugarcane. Foidl has also found the spray to be effective with soybeans, corn, turnips, black beans, red beans, white beans, cow peas, 38 bell peppers, chia, sunﬂowers, mung beans, onions, coffee, tea, chili peppers, melons and sorghum.
Foidl is now experimening with this plant growth spray on large 25-hectare plots of vegetable crops. 39
The spray can be applied to individual plants on a small scale, or, where equipment is available, it can be done on a very large scale. 40
Effects of Spray ● Accelerates growth of young plants ● Plants are ﬁrmer, more resistant to pests and disease ● Longer life-span ● Heavier roots, stems and leaves ● Produce more fruit ● Larger fruit ● Increase in yield 20-35% Foidl has found that this spray has a wide range of beneﬁcial effects on plant crops. If even a fraction of these results could be reproduced in the ﬁeld, it could be a great 41 help in increasing food supplies for millions of hungry people.
Here you can see the effects of the Moringa plant growth spray on bell peppers. These are average sizes of peppers grown with spray applied, and in the control group 42 that did not get sprayed.
The spray even stimulates the growth of the plant’s roots. Here we see a comparison of roots from sugarcane plants that received the spray with roots from the plants in 43 the control group, which did not receive the spray.
Here is the difference in average sizes of seed heads from sorghum plants grown with spray applied, and from the control group that did not receive spray. 44
The plant growth spray can be freeze-dried and stored for later use. Here are some typical sizes of turnips grown with freeze-dried spray, from the control group without 45 spray, and with fresh spray. The freeze-dried spray also increases the size of the turnips, only slightly less than the fresh spray.
Biogas Foidl and his associates have also experimented with producing biogas from Moringa green matter. 46
Based on his experiments, Foidl estimates that more than 4,400 cubic meters of methane could be produced per hectare of Moringa per year. That is up to twice as much 47 methane as can be produced per hectare per year from sugar beet leaves, a common plant material for biogas. Further experiments are needed to examine this potential use of Moringa.
Need for Studies • Human Health • Livestock Fodder • Plant Growth Enhancer • Biogas These and other uses of Moringa leaves show great potential for beneﬁting people—especially those who suffer from poverty and malnutrition. Further scientiﬁc studies 48 are needed to examine these uses and their beneﬁts, and to determine the techniques that will produce the greatest beneﬁts. We would suggest studies in these four areas: human nutrition and medicinal uses, livestock fodder, crop enhancement with the plant growth spray, and production of biogas. The information just presented comes from the research of only a few scientists. Now these tests need to be replicated by many more people around the world.
How to Help • Share this information with key decision-makers in your country. • Promote ﬁeld studies and clinical studies in your country. • Share your ﬁndings with the rest of the world. People can help this process in three ways: 1) Share this information with key decision-makers in your country. 2) Promote ﬁeld studies and clinical studies in your 49 country. And 3) Share your ﬁndings with the rest of the world.
Trees for Life Journal Share your ﬁndings with the world at: www.TFLJournal.org Trees for Life can help share the ﬁndings of Moringa research to beneﬁt the world through our online forum, the Trees for Life Journal. Simply submit your ﬁndings 50 through the journal website at: www.TFLJournal.org
Consider the Possibilities Nutrition • Disease Prevention • Ointment • Alley Cropping • Fertilizer • Erosion Control • Water Puriﬁcation • Cosmetics • Textile Printing • Insecticide • Fungicide • Lubricants • Tanning Leather • Dye • Fiber Products • Fences • Ornamentation & Shade • Wind Barrier • Cane Juice Clariﬁer • Honey Production & Clariﬁer • Condiment • Cooking Oil • Food • Livestock Fodder • Plant Growth Enhancer • Biogas • Medicine: Anemia • Anxiety • Asthma • Blackheads • Blood impurities • Blood pressure • Bronchitis • Catarrh • Chest congestion • Cholera • Colitis • Conjunctivitis • Cough • Diabetes • Diarrhea • Dropsy • Dysentery • Eye and ear infections • Fever • Glandular swelling • Gonorrhea • Headaches • Hysteria • Intestinal worms • Jaundice • Lactation • Malaria • Pain in joints • Pimples • Pregnancy • Psoriasis • Respiratory disorders • Scurvy • Semen deﬁciency • Skin infections • Sore throat • Sores • Sprain • Stomach ulcers • Tuberculosis • Tumor • Urinary disorders • Wounds It’s time that we seriously consider the possibilities of Moringa. The simple act of sharing this information with others could help save millions of lives. 51
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The Miracle Tree: The Multiple Attributes of Moringa (pp. 45-76). pterygosperma (Moringaceae)—A Boon to Arid Lands?” Dakar, Senegal: Church World Service, 2001. Economic Botany. 45 (3), (1991): 318-333. 15. Fuglie, L. New Uses of Moringa Studied in Nicaragua. ECHO 6. IndianGyan: The Source for Alternative Medicines and Holistic Development Notes #68, June, 2000. <http://www.echotech.org/ Health. Home Remedies for Common Ailments. May 2002. network/modules.php?name=News&ﬁle=article&sid=194>. <www.indiangyan.com/books/healthbooks/remedies/cataract. shtml>. 16. Reyes, S.N. Moringa oleifera and Cratylia argentea: potential fodder species for ruminants in Nicaragua. Doctoral thesis, 7. Bakhru, H.K. Foods That heal: The Natural Way to Good Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala. 2006. Health. South Asia Books, 1995. 8. New Crop Resource Online Program (NewCROP). “Moringa Oleifera Lam.” 7 Jan.1998. Purdue U. Jan. 2005. <www.hort. purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Moringa_oleifera.html>.