What is PAC Analysis? • Personal Attitude Construct (PAC) Analysis was proposed by Tetsuo Naito (1993, 1997) • as a method to seek the individual structure of attitude • using visualization (dendrogram) and a dialogical interview.
Two unique research methods made in Japan often referred as qualitative research methods • PAC Analysis • Trajectory Equfinality Approach (個人別態度行動分析) （複線径路等至性モデル）
Is PAC Analysis a qualitative research or a mixed methods research? • Inoue and Ito (2011) argued that the PAC Analysis is one of multiplied mixed methods(乗算 的ミックス法), • while the mixed methods research is usually referred to not multiplicative（かけ算的） but additive combination（足し 算的） of qualitative and quantitative approaches.
Purpose of my presentation • The purpose of the present research is to characterize PAC Analysis from the perspective of mixed methods research.
• PAC分析は質的研究か？ 混合研究法か？ • QUAL？ or MMR ？
Creswell and Fetters’ Workshop at MMIRA Conference in Boston College, 2014 15
What I learned：３ types of basic MMR ①収斂型 ②順次説明型 ③順次探究型 16
My worksheet (2014): Phase, Procedure, and Product of PAC Analysis 17
Today (I year and 3 month later) 18
Japanese version 19
Phase ① QUAL （open-ended questions） Procedure: By stimulus sentence (n=1), Word association (語連想)produces Product: An associated word (or sentence) item list 20
Phase ② quan (closed-ended questions) Procedure: Paired-words rating of distance Product: Distance Matrix
Phase ③ quan (multivariate analysis) Procedure: Cluster Analysis by Ward Method Product: Dendrogram (樹形図) 22
Phase ④ quan → QUAL (open-ended questions) Procedure: Ask the meaning of each and higher clusters Product: Dialogue narrative & cluster name (=meaning)
Phase ⑤: Interpretation(open-ended questions) Procedure: Cooperative dialogue to final interpretation Product: cluster name (=meaning) & fully explained dendrogram 24
Phase ⑥ (for dialogue with non-PACA users) Procedure: Categorization of clusters Product: Summarized Category Table 内海裕里花・内藤哲雄・七海隆之（2014）コンパニオンアニマルへのフラストレーションと攻撃 行動：飼い猫を対象としてのPAC分析 PAC分析学会第8回大会プログラム・発表抄録集, 17-21. 25
Discussion: • According to the characteristics of its procedures, PAC Analysis can be identified as a mixed methods research by sequentially combining QUAL and QUAN data collection and analysis. • PAC Analysis as Explanatory sequential design ( or is it Exploratory sequential design?) ( or a qualitative approach with visualization?)
Discussion (2) • PAC Analysis method is a powerful approach as a research and counseling tool (Inoue, 1997, 1998). • Its advantages are: • (1) visualizing an individual’s inner world, • (2) analyzing shared words and their meanings based on narrative, and • (3) conducting an evidence-based case study. 28
Thank you. Comments are welcome 29
付録１：質的研究法としてのPAC分析 as a Semi-Automatic Thematic Analysis • Thematic Analysis (Boyatzis, 1998): = A process to be used with qualitative information. It is not a another qualitative method but a process that can be used with most, if not all qualitative methods (methods of data collection).
• Thematic analysis is a process for encoding qualitative information.
• ‘A research method for the subjective interpretation of the content of text data through the systematic classification process of coding and identifying themes or patterns’ (Hsieh & Shannon, 2005) • PAC Analysis =Thematic Analysis + Relational Analysis (Ito, 2014)