Why Power Sharing? Two different sets of reasons can be given in favor of power sharing:- 1. power sharing helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups. Since social conflict often leads to violence and political instability, power sharing is a good way to ensure the stability of political order. Imposing the will of majority community over others may look like an attractive option in the short run, but in the long run it undermines the unity of the nation. 2. There is a second, deeper reason why power sharing is good for democracies. Power sharing is the very spirit of democracy. A democratic rule involves sharing power with those affected by its exercise, and who have to live with its effects. People have a right to be consulted on how they are to be governed. A legitimate government is one where citizens, through participation, acquire a stake in the system.
Sri Lanka :- 1. There are 74% Sinhala-speakers 2. There are 18% Tamil-speakers in which :- • 13% are Sri Lankan Tamils • 5% are Indian Tamils 3. There are nearly 7% Christians Belgium :- 1. There are 59% lives in Flemish region speaks Dutch 2. There are 40% who live in the Wallonia region and speak French 3. Only 1% people speaks German Brussels (capital of Belgium) 1. 80% people are French speakers 2. 20% rest are Dutch speakers
Sinhalese Sri Lankan Tamil Indian Tamil Muslim
Sri Lanka:- Sri Lanka emerged as an independent country in The leaders of the Sinhala community sought to secure dominance over government by virtue of their majority. The democratically elected government adopted a series of MAJORITARIAN measures to establish Sinhala supremacy. The governments followed preferential policies that favored Sinhala applicants for university positions and government jobs. A new constitution stipulated that the state shall protect and foster Buddhism. Belgium:- The minority French-speaking community was relatively rich and powerful. This was resented by the Dutch-speaking community who got the benefit of economic development and education much later. This led to tensions between the Dutch-speaking and French- speaking communities during the 1950s and 1960s.
Roleof government in sri lanka Sri Lanka:- The governments followed preferential policies that favored Sinhala applicants for university positions and government jobs. A new constitution stipulated that the state shall protect and foster Buddhism. These government measures, coming one after the other, gradually increased the feeling of alienation among the Sri Lankan Tamils Government policies denied them equal political rights, discriminated against them in getting jobs and other opportunities and ignored their interests.
RoleofgovernmentinBelgium Government of Belgium took a different method to cope up this problem They applied vertical power sharing, and Accommodation were made they were:- Constitution prescribes that the number of Dutch and French- speaking ministers shall be equal in the central government. Thus, no single community can make decisions unilaterally. Many powers of the central government have been given to state governments of the two regions of the country. The state governments are not subordinate to the Central Government. Brussels has a separate government in which both the communities have equal representation. The French speaking people accepted equal representation in Brussels because the Dutch-speaking community has accepted equal representation in the Central Government. Apart from the Central and the State Government, there is a third kind of government. This ‘community government’ is elected by people belonging to one language community – Dutch, French and German-speaking – no matter where they live.
SOLUTIONS FOR EXISTING PROBLEMS There are many solutions to stop disputes between Sri Lanka One is they can adopt the method of verticle power sharing Belgium used for power sharing There should be reservations for Tamils Tamil should be recognized by government. There should be equal representation in the Central Government for sinhalas
The Sri Lankan Tamils launched parties and struggles for the recognition of Tamil as an official language, , for regional autonomy and equality of opportunity in securing education and jobs. But their demand for more autonomy to provinces populated by the Tamils was repeatedly denied. By 1980s several political organizations were formed demanding an independent Tamil Eelam (state) in northern and eastern parts of Sri Lanka. The distrust between the two communities turned into widespread conflict. It soon turned into a CIVIL WAR. As a result thousands of people of both the communities have been killed. Many families were forced to leave the country as refugees and many more lost their livelihoods. The civil war has caused a terrible setback to the social, cultural and economic life of the country.
THE FORMS OF POWER SHARING BELGIUM SRI LANKA It is a small country on Europe with very complex ethnic composition. Belgium followed a community government, which was elected by people Between 1970 and 1993, the constitution of Belgium was amended for 4 times It is an island nation in Indian ocean The capital is Brussels They followed ‘Majoritarionism’. In 1956, an Act was passed to recognize ‘Sinhala’ as official language The capital is Colombo
FORMS OF POWER SHARING Power is shared among different organs of government, such as the legislature, executive and judiciary. Let us call this horizontal distribution of power because it allows different organs of government placed at the same level to exercise different powers. Power can be shared among governments at different levels – general government for the entire country and governments at the provincial or regional level. Such general government for the entire country is usually called federal government. Power may also be shared among different social groups, such as the religious and linguistic groups. ‘Community government’ in Belgium is a good example of this arrangement. Power sharing arrangements can also be seen in the way political parties, pressure groups and movements control or influence those in power. In contemporary democracies this takes the form of competition among different parties. Such competition ensures that power does not remain in one hand.