A Seminar on Presented by Rathi K. N. M Ed. I st Sem (2010-11) N. S. S. Training College Ottapalam
Behaviorist Learning Theory Skinner Pavlov Hull
Cognitive Learning Theory Piaget Bruner
Social Learning Theory Vygotsky Bandura
Clark Leonard Hull Born 24 May 1884-NewYork Died 10 May 1952 Nationality American Fields psychologist
Basic concepts in Hull’s theory Need- Physiological imbalances. Drive- state of tension. Reinforcement- Reward Primary and secondary. Goal- commodity which reduce drive. Need Drive Activity Goal Reduced Drive
Drive-Reduction Theory When the instinct theory of motivation failed it was replaced by drive-reduction theory. Physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need (Hull, 1951).
Drive Reduction Physiological aim of drive reduction is homeostasis – maintenance of steady internal state, e.g., maintenance of steady body temperature. Food Drive Reduction St Em o p mach F ty Sto ull mach (Food Deprived)
Drive Reduction Theory Clark L Hull
Symbolism in Hull’s theory Unlearned behaviour (SUR) Habit Strength (SHR) Reactive Inhibition (IR) Conditioned Inhibition (SIR) Effective reaction potential (SER)
Hull’s System (1943)
MAJOR THEORETICAL CONCEPTS Book - “Principles of Behaviour” (1943) 16 Postulates Quantitative Equation on Human Performance Book – “A Behaviour system” (1952)
POSTULATE 1: Sensing the external environment and the stimulus trace. S-s-r- R S-External situation s-Internal stimulus trace R-External response r-Response tendency
POSTULATE 8: Responding causes fatigue, which operates against the elicitation of a conditioned response. IR-Reaction inhibition This concept explains the spontaneous recovery of a conditioned response after extinction
POSTULATE 9: The learned response of not responding SER= Reaction Potential - (IR+SIR) E -Effective reaction potential S R I -Reactive inhibition R I - Conditioned inhibition S R
POSTULATE 10: Factors tending to inhibit a learned response change from moment to moment. Oscillation effect SER= [ Reaction potential -(IR+SIR)]- SOR SOR =Oscillation of inhibition SER –Momentary effective reaction potential
POSTULATE 11: Reaction threshold.
Momentary effective reaction potential must exceed a certain value before a learned response can occur.
SER > (SLR). SLR- Learned response
POSTULATE 12: Response probability (p)
p-Response probability SER- Momentary effective reaction potential SOR- Oscillation effect Reaction potential will be very close to Reaction threshold.
POSTULATE 13: Response latency The greater the value of the momentary effective reaction potential the shorter the latency will be the latency between S and R. Latency (STR) – time between the presentation of a stimulus to the organism and its learned response
POSTULATE 14: Resistance to extinction (n) The value of the momentary effective reaction potential will determine resistance to extinction.
POSTULATE 15: Response amplitude (A) The amplitude of a conditioned response varies directly with the momentary effective reaction potential.
POSTULATE 16: Choice When two or more incompatible responses tend to be elicited in the same situation, the one with the greatest momentary effective reaction potential will occur.
MAJOR DIFFERENCES BETWEEN HULL’S 1943 AND 1952 THEORIES
Change from Drive Reduction to Drive Stimulus Reduction Hull’s original theory was a drive reduction theory but he modified this to a drive stimulus reduction. He concluded that drive reduction was too far removed from the presentation of the reinforcer to explain how learning could take place. Replaced it with DRIVE STIMULI.
Hull’s Drive Theory - 1952 Drive – an intense internal force that motivates behavior. Learning is the result of several factors that determine the likelihood of a specific behavior occurring: Drive, D Incentive motivation (reward), K Habit strength (prior experience), H Inhibition (due to absence of reward), I
HULL’S FINAL SYSTEM SUMMARIZED There are three kinds of variables in hull’s theory: 1. Independent variables, which are stimulus events systematically manipulated by the experimenter.
W-amount of work S- stimulus intensy N- no: of reinforcers M-Magnitude of reinforcement
HULL’S FINAL SYSTEM SUMMARIZED 2. Intervening variables, which are processes thought to be taking place within the organism but are not directly observable. Habit Strength –SHR Reactive Inhibition-IR Conditioned Inhibition-SIR Effective reaction potential-SER
HULL’S FINAL SYSTEM SUMMARIZED 3. Dependent variables, which are some aspect of behaviour that is measured by the experimenter in order to determine whether the independent variables had any effect. A-Amplitude of behaviour STR- Response latency n-Number of trials to extinction p-Response probability
SUMMARY OF HULL’S THEORY OF LEARNING AFTER 1952
Hull on Education Anxiety is a drive in human learning. Students who are mildly anxious are in the best position to learn and therefore are easiest to teach. Practice would be carefully distributed so that inhibition would not be built up. Drive: The learner must want something Cue: The learner must attend to something Response: The learner must do something Reinforcement: The learner's response must get him/her something he/she wants
Criticisms It was of little value in explaining behaviour beyond the laboratory. Insisted too much that all concepts of interest be operationally defined Inconsistent predictions
References Theories of learning -Gorden H. Bower and Ernest R. Hilgard Advance Educational Psychology - Dandapani and S.Santhanam Critical thinking and learning - Kincheoloe and Weil Motivation theories and principles - Robert C. Beck Advanced educational Psychology - S.K.Mangal Advanced educational Psychology - S.S. Chauhan