.1 Introduction [natural systems] Ecology. the movement of a simple substance through the soil, rocks, water, atmosphere, and living organisms of the earth. _005
The physical world is made-up of biotic and abi- otic elements. How these elements interact forms the world around us. Nature has developed cy- clical systems working between these two bodies giving life to death. It does so in a highly efficient manner allowing for complexity and diversity of combustion life. On the opposite end of this spectrum is the mod- ern city. It’s system is linear. It’s only concern is commerce and expansion assembled on a birth to death production line. In the end, most products are disguarded with high quantities of byproducts dumped into the air, land and rivers. Whereas in nature, waste is constantly cycled back to other forms of life. Linear sysems are limited and short lived which means the current sysem we live by in the city will fail under social and biological fac- tors. Ever since man decided he was above na- ture and separate from it is when the city began, fossil fuel and with it came commerce and industry as we know it today. Those early cities were polluting on a smaller scale, we’ve just exacerbated the prob- lem. Businesses should act more like part of a eco- logical system in which waste is eliminated and used by another company. Mutual relationships between inputs and outputs.
Atmoshere respiration from decomposers respiration Plants fossilisation Consumers death death to atmosphere Decomposers
.2 Abstract [position] n. Existing in thought or as an idea but not having a physical or concrete existence.
Bakersfield, CA holds the title of ‘Dirtiest City in America’ according to the American Lung Association. Like many cities around the country, Bakersfield suffers from wide- spread suburban sprawl and inefficient in- frastructure leading to toxic waste buildup in the atmosphere. Other social issues such as massive commuter traffic, oil companies polluting, farming burn-off and surrounding cities whose smog ends up right in Bakers- field’s backyard is only adding to the exist- ing problem. So what? Why should we care when these forces also contribute to com- merce and growth of a city? The answer is buildup of toxic greenhouse gases is not only destructive and deadly to plants and ani- mals in the community but people as well. Sixty days out of the year it is unsafe to go for a run in Bakersfield because of bad air quality. This has a direct impact on health- care causing cancer and heart disease. The problem is bad air quality. Tackling something that cannot be seen is difficult but possible and biology has the answer. The strategy is to approach the city with a “system” or network of connected systems
Noise light smog Pollution Traffic Toxic gas Greenhouse
Poison _011 Heat food lose destructive
which act as catalyst to the greater prob- lem. Think urban acupuncture. By pinpoint- ing blighted locations within the urban fabric and using them as tourniquets to the heal- ing process of the city. These ‘needles’ will be activation points within the city that may or may not be physically connected but share similar qualities. Megatropolis cities like those in China and Europe have begun to address pollution with Biology and Tech- nology. Lack of densifying within the city of Bakersfield has caused mass suburban sprawl, so by looking at projects that seek to connect the community through adaptive reuse becomes one tactic to addressing this issue. By combining and applying these tac- tics to a location in need of infill the larger scale problem can begin to be addressed. Through multiple catalyst-like systems put into place within the urban fabric, a cleans- ing can take place and healing of Bakers- field’s ecology can begin. system in balance
play life skin filtration growth ecology _013 interaction detoxification
.3 Extractions [lineage] [Biology] a sequence of species each of which is considered to have evolved from its predecessor.
We exist as a collection of memories. From birth we are exposed to various environments effecting both the phyical and pyschological “self.” Certain instances we naturally gravitate toward. For me, those instances have come to define the ‘self’ +/- through various media. These instances can also be thought of as influences. people places Love + art Life + Death
event tramatic +/- complete the whole intake
art + science Art is a very powerful influence. As an single par- ticipant, it can be a form of self expression, as a community it becomes identity. Art has always been a part of my life since childhood. It is about creativity. Pushing us to think differently about the world around us. Art is the air we breathe.
instilation painting _019 photography
music Music, like art, is a powerful tool to tap into cre- ativity and architecture. It has been said that ar- chitecture is frozen music. It possesses rhythm, movement, repetition and deepth. It can be a secondary effect to an environment becoming part of the experience of space. Knowing this cre- ates opens the possibility of better user environ- ments.
biophiliac noun. A biophiliac, one who gets aroused by nature. “ I think I’m a biosexual. Flowers turn me on, I have eco-erotic thoughts. The liquid trickle of the stream-flow lapping over the rocks makes my juices flow. My loins are moist soil. My nipples re- spond to the tiny cupped lips of flower petals...” .La tigresa, Dona Nieto
Buddhist believe all things are connected, abiot- ic and biotic elements alike. Architecture should seek to be in balance with these elements. _023
personal influences There are many people who have come to influ- ence and shape me as a designer. Most of these individuals share a common ground for being progressive. Pushing and distorting the limits of their world. People like Christo and Jean Claude pushed art in a direction that had never been experimented with before. John Pawson whose minimal arhecture is about pushing light and form. Amid architects who are pushing ecology into ev- ery form of architecture. It is people like this and others who are constantly shaping and reshaping the way I preceive the world we live in.
.4 Location [place] n. A particular position or point in space.
san francisco Bakersfield, Ca In the early days of Hollywood, Bakersfield was considered the pit-stop town on the way to Los Angeles. It was the only place along the long val- ley stretch wtih a developing center core. Discov- ered in the late eighteen hundreds, the area was originally a tule-reed covered marshland. The cli- mate here has long hot summers followed by cool, wet and foggy winters which are ideal for a wide variety of crops. Along with fertile soil colonization, oil was discovered and the population in the area boomed. Today, agriculture and oil still dominate the region and the effects of exploiting non-re- newable resources has begun to show face.
_029 los angeles
Global Effects If we look at Bakersfield relative to a more global scale, we can see the effects natural wind cycles are having on local climate. Twenty-five percent of China’s smog travels along ocean wind currents moving across water and mountain ranges until it reaches California’s below sea level valley. This means Bakersfield’s citizens are having to breathe in smog producted from the factories pumping out consumer demand-driven products.
The Valley The valley has become dominated by farming. The high-lighted area shows the counties with the most arable soil. Not only does it feed local mar- kets but markets across the continental U.S. as well. This has driven the growth and commerce of the state. This inturn has had heavy tolls on natu- ral ecosystmes. Rivers and lake beds have been depleted, old growth trees cut down and dozens of other habitats destroyed in the process. Loss of green life means less plants to intake carbon di- oxide and filterout other toxic compounds in the earth. This leaves Bakersfield in a vulnerable con- dition.
NH NO 4 3 Local Looking at the geology of place shows why Ba- kersfield is in a toxic condition. Smog from other cit- HNO ies flowing into the valley and getting stuck there is 3 only part of the problem. Along with the build-up of greenhouse gases from farming + agriculture and the oil + transport industry, Suburban sprawl and mass commuter transport have taken effect as a result of being on the periphery to higher pay- ing jobs. This has created a toxic social condition. NOX
(NH) SO 4 2 3 H SO 2 4 NH3 _035 SO2
.5 Approach [methadology] n. A system of methods used in a particular area of study or activity. Condition observed: _037 The health + life safety concern for the community of Bakersfield.
 Question of Inquiry As a child, when you are told whether it is safe or not to outside for a run because ‘bad air’ it makes you question whether any else sees this as a problem and why is no one doing anything to change it. The question of inquiry then be- comes a life and health concern for the users, something architecture revolves around.
Health Toxic City: Cancer + What makes a city toxic? Life Safety Why is Bakersfield a toxic breeding ground?
 Toxic City conditions What makes up the toxic city conditions? The answer is made-up of multiple social issues.
Lack of identity and sense of commuity Connecting Communities Lack of art and culture Lack of haphazard outdoor gather space Disgregard for natural systems Ecology mono-crops infrastructure that caters to vehicles reliant on vehicular transportation Densifying suburban sprawl destroying natural habitat and needed farmland
 Interpret We can begin to collect data from multiple sources that are developmental catalyst that can be used as tactics to counteract the toxic city conditions.
Relevant scenerios Case Studies Literature Personal experiences Various Media Documentaries Ecology mycelium breakdown hydro carbons Nature Ecology Current site conditions Context
 application Injecting the needles into the urban fabric.
Haphazard possibilities Art + Play Activation Urban acupunture Communal spaces Adaptable reuse Second life of building Local species to infill voids Restoration Return to Natural state Bakersfield Cactus rehabilitation
Current conditions where low-moderate income is kept on the periphery to the commerical district.
Voids can be identified and links found to connect the community in a rich network. _047
.6 Observations [literature] n. A remark, statement, or comment based on something one has seen, heard, or noticed. _049 Literature relative to what has and is being done in ecology and architecture intergration.
Central District Development Agency of Bakersfield. Bakersfieldcity.us site current status Data: Relative quantitative information such as redevelopment plans and historical data is impor- tant to understand the site and surrounding con- text. Past, present and future observations begin to inform us of the direction in which Bakersfield is headed. Jane Jacobs. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. A catalyst to urban blight “A generalized neighborhood park that is not headquarters for the leisured indigent can be- come populated naturally and casually only by being situated very close indeed to where active and different currents of life and funciton come to focus. If downtown, it must get shoppers, visitros and strollers as well as downtown workers. If not downtown, it must still be where life swirls-where there is work, cultural, residential and commeri- cal activity- as much as possible of everything dif- ferent that cities can offer. The main problem of neighborhood park planning boils down to the problem of nurturing diversified neighborhoods capable of using and supporting parks.” (131). Jacobs clearly defines adaptable points within the urban fabric, something to be taken into
account with Bakersfield. The old town redevel- opment plan lies between ‘swirls’ of contact and mixing that Jacobs’ speaks about. If we pay at- tention to how the street life functions, then a ben- eficial environment can be created for all users. Paul Hawken. Ecology and Commerce. how they can and should function together in a symbiotic relationship. “Natural Step begins with cellular biology, The cell is only concerned with the conditions nec- essary for sustaining and propagating life. Cells _051 grew and evolved over billions of years through self-sustaining cycles where all waste is constantly cycled back to other forms of life. Cyclical Biologi- cal Activity can be the only source of life because all linear systems (by function and definition) are limited and short lived.” (52) What is great about Paul Hawken’s book is that he not only outlines why ecosystems are suffering but also resolutions and tactics to implement in todays built environ- ment. These include ‘Dematerialization’ and ‘De- carbonization’ (64), both of which are relevant to the project. If positive relationships can be found and set as examples of a more beneficial world, future projects can develop on such prototypes that Bakersfield is lacking in.
EPA. EPA.gov blight in the built environment and how to counteract sustainably When approaching a global issue like air pollu- tion, the EPA is a relevant source for studies and analysis already done on existing similar condi- tions. The EPA takes into account all four forms of the environement looking at how important it is to understand how each process works for its reha- bilitation, and Bakersfield is in desperate need of rehabilitation and detoxification. TedTalks. TED.com. progressive and experimental implementations Designers, Biologist and other professionals discuss new and and innovative ways of interpreting and evolving our built environment. Janine Benyus shares nature’s designs. 12 examples of Biomimicry and how they can in- fluence the products and systems we build. Skins that are self cleaning, glass that behaves more like masonry and materials that self-assemble are just a few examples of this. How is this relevant to the project? If we can make materials that are more plant like this completes the link in a cycle of reuse. Aside from quantitantive factors, we can learn about design implementations that bene- fit the user. Humans of the modern world spend more than 90% of their time indoors. Indoor me- chanical ventilation decreases microbial diversity, and increases potential pathogens resulting in a unhealthy environment.
Living Building Challenge. ilbi.org projects that come full circle. The Living Building Challenge clearly defines guide- lines and principles that encompass much more than just the tangible physical built environment. This challenge incorporates elements of ecology, social responsibility, beauty and most importantly the user. For now, this is the most comprehensive design guide. Design e2. tap into the known _053 Case studies are crucial in developing practical buildable projects. Design e2 is a series of case studies from multiple typologies of the built envi- ronment. From progressive technology in fabrics to development of poor communities, it provides valuable information and scenerios for similar type of conditions like those in Bakersfield. These types of buildings serve to ground the project.
.7 Conditions [typology] n. The study and interpretation of types and symbols, originally of a subject. _055
Connecting communites Public activation Dead zones within the urban fabric are potential rehabilitaion sites. These spots are left over lots, parkings lots, brownfields, abandoned buildings and other blighted areas that are under-utilized. In Bakersfield, post-industrial downtown is full of sites like these. Low to moderate income levels are widespread in this area and food desert con- ditions dominate forcing people to travel outside of their neighborhood for basic needs. The street furniture is unkept, cracked streets and unsafe or unwelcoming sidewalks detour community mem- bers from enjoying public space. For these reasons alone it becomes critical that the project seek to reverse these habits. Links should be made to con- nect pedestrian pathways from the commnity to civic activity and vise versa. These blighted plots become activation points along these paths for potential growth and play. By placing projects that interject these paths then ownership by the community begins to take place. Bringing people outside of the house and onto the street is one of the first steps to recovery.
Ecosistema Urbano- Air Tree Madrid - Creative Urban sustainability
Insertion of an temporary airtree-social dynamic
Reactivate the existing
Technological furniture in the city
Urban creativity to bring people together
Sergio Palleroni-BaSiC initiative
Sustainable low-income housing
Local materials-not polluting. Strengthening local business, keeping jobs
When its a community effort, community ownership happens
Designers were forced to design and think sustainably about the homes
Megs field Conversion- Millennium Park
Privately paid for, city only built garage
Park+Art on a human scale making it inviting to locals and vistors alike
Green roof on city hall: displays sustainability features
Filtering Skins Eliminating green house gases As the buildup of green house gases gather in the central valley, the pressure for change becomes more apparent. CO2 and Methane are just of a few of these chemical compounds. Like most gas- es, they are invisible. What can be done about something in the air we can not see to contain? Nature provides that answer. What we see as po- tentially dangerous plants see as food. Vegeta- tion alone can absorb high amounts of CO2, but then the question becomes what about the other toxic chemicals in the air? That is where modern technology can play a significant role. By combin- ing these two techniques a prototype filtering skin can be designed.
_061 Callebaut’s ‘Anti Smog: An Innovation Centre in Sustainable Development’ is a catalyst for cleaner air. Use latest renewable energies to fight smog. A new architecture able to disasphyxiate the area in which it is set up, The whole building is recov- ered by a layer of titanium dioxide (TiO2) as anatase, which by reacting to ultraviolet rays, enables to reduce the air pollution An ecological prototype of auto-sufficient, depolluting architecture, reactive to its environment 250 m² photovoltaic blue roof catches the sun rays to transform them in electrical energies in addition to be an auto-cleaning building, will enable to absorb and recycle by photo-catalytic effect the cloud of unhealthful effects (Smog) especially coming from the intense traffic of the very close Parisian belt.
Solar Building: Park on the roof Many buildings in the downtown area have under utilized roof tops and this is an example of using green- scape within the city to reduce CO2 buildup soil + sedum green roof provide a substrate for plant life to live and filter surrounding air. This layer nsulates in winter and ejects heat in summer. Acts as a water retainer - storm water retention is recycled. Mayor chose a symbol that the public could get excited about and turned into a green symbol for the city.
_063 28 Storey Kowloon Office Tower Located in China, this office is a bushy greenery-lined carpark in one. The bushy carpark is not only aesthetically pleasing but controls the air quality by absorbing carbon emissions from the incoming ground level air. The air is then filtered again and exhausted out the top A well developed project involving biology and architecture.
NL Architects “Tower of Power” in Taiwan Utilizes 600 wind turbines to produce 6 MW of electricity for the city. Include observation deck, meeting space, office space, a museum, and parking. The lace-like sky- scraper combines practical mixed use space with the ability to produce an impressive amount of clean power for the city and filtering incoming air for users.
Education Systems of sustainability This class of building are coming full circle with their projects on renewable energies and complete cycle decisions. They have become examples of what biology and technology can do together.
_067 BIDV Tower, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, Ken Yeang Ecocells for a sustainable energy source Skycourts Sun Shading helping regulate heat Veritcal Boulevard, vegeation integration Roof Gardens for water retention Wind Funnels, natural ventilation keeping harmful pathogens low.
Plaza of Nations, vancover Canada, Ken Yeang Ziggurat pattern of continuous planting-operable glass screen enclosure to provide winter garden- opened during summer. Irrigated by gray water recycling. Passive air circulation facilitated by taking advantage of the stack effect micro wind turbines. Solar shading. Planting only indigenous plant species. Ground-level parks/open space/ lots of seating. Established a low-energy design.
_069 BATC Tower, Germany, Ken Yeang Deconstructivist ecosystem Refuge zones
Chicago Center for Green technology: Laboratory of what green things can do. Thousands of local residents use it to know what they can do in their homes to reduce energy cost and be off the grid as well as smart water management and reusable materials.
.8 Case Studies n. A particular instance of something used or analyzed in order to illustrate a thesis or principle. _073
Magic Mountain Ecosystem mask for Ames Thermal Power Station Ames, Iowa Architect: AMID*cero9 Rethinking of the built environment as something capable of giving back to the natural systems: Power Station transformed into a vertical garden with living technified walls. Local flora and fauna data collected and applied. Perimeter pathway cleared between shell and wall for post-construc- tion maintenance. Shell is made of living matter as a base in a grid recycled polypropylene pallets on structural box grider attached mechanically to the reinforced concrete walls of the power sta- tion. Bring back nature to the city: Lost habitats restored. Creating identity and giving back to the community.
BLUR BUILDING Pavillion for Swiss Expo 02 Architect: Diller + Scofidio [SKIN + STRUCTURE] Efficient tensegrity structure: Piles in the water sup- port a tensegrity system of rectilinear struts and di- agonal rods which cantilever out over the lake. (Based of a Buckminster Fuller work form).Rethink physical relationship to the building/ built environ- ment: Mediums that are not necessarily tangible. Filtering lake water while creating form. Users are given a personality test and suits that lightup based on characteristics. These traits are then translated into colors so like people are attracted to eacho- ther, creating spontaneous interactions between individuals.
MMAA Office Qatar, United Arab Emirates Architect: Aesthetics Architects GO group [Biomimicry] Designed for its environment: energy efficient with shades on windows retracting depending on in- tensity of the heat. Behaves similar to how a cacti performs transpiration. Waste water management through botanical garden at base, waste water is pumped into 3 different systems. Use of helpful bacteria, fungi, plants, snails, clams and fish that thrive on breaking down and digesting pollutants keep a closed loop system.
Scala Tower Copenhagen Architect: Bjarke Ingels [PROGRAM + CONTEXT SYMBIOSIS] Guilding principles: Relate base to the scale of the surrouding buildings + relate building to the histor- ic Copenhagen skyline...slim towers in the horizon. Morphed ideas: Base + Tower spiral up together making public space an integrated part of the structure. Getting people to sit, stay and play.
.9 Space Relations [program] Quality of space. Users, light, sound? What should you feel: place to stop and rest. Material: non-toxic, reused, recyclable. _083
Proposal Currently, Bakersfield is the target of healthcare we should be thinking about buildings second life, organizations across the nation, and one of those adaptive-reuse and recycling of waste and ener- is the American Lung Association who label the gy within a building. city “Dirtiest City in America”. Why is Bakersfield in This project should also seek to strengthen the the condition that it is? The area’s geology makes community as a whole and discourage suburban this clear. The city lies in the San Joaquin valley sprawl. A successful project gives ownership to the putting it in a type of sinkhole, making the area people, making local community members feel a gathering point for greenhouse gas buildup. connected to the project. The user must never be This in turn leads to many social and healthcare forgotten in the design while considering these issues for the local community. Through biology goals. If the structure is more of hin drance than and technology we can begin to see a reversal benefit to human use, how can this be considered of the negative effects farming, oil companies anything beneficial to society as a whole? The av- and vehicular smog have caused to the natural erage person spends close to ninety percent of environment. Bakersfield has great potential to their day indoors and when you consider the psy- be a clean power source and in turn be benefi- chological effects the built environment can have cial for its community members. A systems type on an individual it becomes clear why it is impera- approach based around the idea of urban acu- tive that good design start with principles based puncture is the strategy. Networks based around off well-designed structures revolving around the rehabilitation of communities can act as catalyst user. for the city by cleaning the air and connecting
By combining these two goals a system can communities. be developed with specific goals and principals Biomimicry may hold many of the answers to the to be applied within Bakersfield’s void spots. These questions revolving around the healing of Bakers- dead-zones within the inner city will act together field. Most of the activity happening in the city to re-establish connections with communities and is self-destructive in nature. Massive amounts of allow the city to breathe better. commuters traveling to and from LA County for work each and everyday is just one example of the disconnect from natural cycles. Biomimicry teaches us that nature works in cycles and all forms of energy and production should be available lo- cally. Today’s linear thinking of birth-to-death in the products we make and use only results in ex- ponential amounts of waste. This means
Reconnect the people with the city. _085 People City
Program The research and decision making process that identifies the scope of work to be designed. Functional + operational requirements. What is the site potential? Community Gathering
Program exhibition space - art studio the research and decision-making process that identifies the scope of work to be designed. outdoor activited space - playground functional and operational requirements. what is the site potential. identifying the scope of a design problem. greenscape Community Gathering _087 human scale walkability urban agriculture theater Commerce entertainment restaurant - cafe housing closed system - self-sustaining Educational resource center reuse site improve quality of place - clean air
Program exhibition space - art studio the research and decision-making process that identifies the scope of work to be designed. outdoor activited space - playground functional and operational requirements. what is the site potential. identifying the scope of a design problem. greenscape Community Gathering human scale walkability urban agriculture theater Commerce entertainment restaurant - cafe community vending housing _089 closed system - self-sustaining Educational resource center reuse site improve quality of place - clean air reuse materials
.10 Order and Organization [logics] How does it work? _091
Should the relationship of the building to the street and surrounding context open vertical or horizon- tal? What are the circulation routes across the site and do any of these influence the form through stacking, twisting, splitting or detached? Should certain uses be grouped or isolated? What kind of materiality and assembly is appropriate to the site? Are there conditional restrictions to the site? These are questions that improve quality of space and give ties from the building to the community at large. MILL CREEK PARK CIVIC / TRANSPORT AREA
Vertical vs. Horizontal Why vertical? Vertical has density benefits. One of the main fac- tors breaking down a community is lack of diver- isty and density. A vertical form provides space for various income types and multi-use space. The down side to this form is the disconnect from high space to lower space. The vertical form can be unapproachable in monolithic representation. _093
Vertical vs. Horizontal Why Horizontal? Horizontal has a physically more appealing form in relationship to the surrounding context. Very few buildings rise above four stories in the old town dis- trict meaning a mid-rise would feel alien to its en- vironment. Horizontal structures innately relate to the pedestrian by being on the human scale mak- ing it approachable.
Grouped vs. fractal Why grouped? Programs which have an isoated nature tend to exclude other opportunities for haphazard user in- teraction. The designer may have intentions for a spaces use but ultimately the space and function over time and for various reasons changes allow- ing for new possiblities. These possibilities allow for an evolving architecture, something dead space left out. _095 MILL CREEK PARK CIVIC / TRANSPORT AREA
Materiality This project revolves around adaptive reuse of existing structures. With this in mind, materiality should MILL CREEK P focus on r ARK etaining materials on site that can be put to a new use or remain structurally sound. The second phase is to incorporate local materials that are reuseable, biodegradable and do not have negative effects on the environment in its processing or embodied energy. Designing in this fashion ensures a sustainable educational environment. CIVIC / TRANSPORT AREA
Conditions There are certain restrictions and parameters with which the project can revolve around. The main focus is connecting the site with existing circula- tion paths. A dominate feature is the water canal running from the central park down to the civic area of downtown. This is a perfect opportunity to tie into and link the project. Other conditional criteria like low to modern income in the area be- gin to determine program. Because the focus is adaptive reuse this sets another restriction on site location. All three of these conditions alone tells us where and what type of architecture the site calls for. _097
Possibilities. MILL CREEK PARK From the art studio to the park to the civic center: connecting the community is the first step towards a higher of living for the citizens of Bakersfield. CIVIC / TRANSPORT AREA