Shakespeare Against Fossil Fuels and Donald Trump: The Secret Play in Romeo and Juliet ロミオとジュリエットの秘密の劇 Under Donald Trump’s leadership, the USA has just dropped out of the Paris Agreement on climate change. What would Shakespeare have said about this shocking act of Trump’s? Shakespeare was always against fossil fuels and predicted their demise over time. He coded his predictions into his plays and poems, but the most succinct statement of his views is found in Romeo and Juliet. The first and second lines of Romeo and Juliet ("Gregory, on my word, we'll not carry coals"/ "No for then we should be colliers) can be seen, because of their prominence as the introductory lines, as a hidden announcement of the theme of the play, The London of Shakespeare's era saw huge increases in coal consumption as forests could no longer provide enough fuel for a booming economy and population. The famous line "Juliet is the sun" then becomes (in the same context of a secret code) a way to attach allegorical and cosmic significance to the heroine. 「グレゴリー、石炭はこぶのは、どんなことがあってもやめようぜ」「そうともさ、そんな事 すりゃ、探鉱夫になっちまうからな。」ロミオとジュリエットはこの台詞から始まる。実は、 この戯曲には隠れたテーマがある。冒頭のこの 2 行は、その秘密を導入部で暗示する うってつけの台詞になっている。シェークスピアの時代、ロンドンでは経済の急成長と 人口の増加で、木材ではもはや十分な燃料を確保できなくなったため石炭の消費量 が急増した。同じく暗号という点から見ると「ジュリエットは太陽だ」という有名な台詞 もヒロインに寓話的で宇宙的な重要性を与える手法と見ることができる。 Shakespeare concealed a "secret" morality play in four ontologically delineated scenes between the lovers (who interact functionally only with each other when they are together), with Romeo as an Everyman who leaves the sun economy (the set of flows of matter and energy to humans) and lives in prolonged exile from the sun economy before returning upon the future depletion of fossil fuels. シェークスピアはこの道徳劇の中で、全 4 幕いずれもロミオとジュリエットが二人きりで 登場する場面の中に「秘密」を隠している。他の登場人物と切り離された場面で二人 のやり取りを通し「秘密」が明らかになっていく。シェークスピアがロミオを通して描い ているのは、太陽を中心とした経済（太陽で育まれるモノや人間のエネルギーを基盤と した経済）から離れ、化石燃料がもうすぐ枯渇しようとするまで長い流浪を続ける人類 である。 The cosmic order is finally heliocentric (with the sun as the only permanent and stable source of sustenance and wherewithal, what we now call energy) and the science behind the idea is based on the work of Giordano Bruno, the natural philosopher later executed in 1600 for heresy by the Inquisition. ようやく太陽を中心に宇宙の秩序が構成される時代がくる。太陽が唯一永久的で安定 した生命維持の源で手段、今でいうエネルギーとなる。この背景には、宗教裁判で異
端であるとして 1600 年火刑に処せられた自然哲学者ジョルダーノ・ブルーノの業績に 基盤を置く科学がある。 Act 1, scene 5 Romeo: If I profane with my unworthiest hand This holy shrine, the gentle sin is this: My lips, two blushing pilgrims, ready stand To smooth that rough touch with a tender kiss. Juliet: Good pilgrim, you do wrong your hand too much, Which mannerly devotion shows in this; For saints have hands that pilgrims’ hands do touch, And palm to palm is holy palmers’ kiss. In my interpretation, this scene between the lovers represents pagan religions, nature worship, etc. Act II, scene 2
Romeo: ……the brightness of her cheek would shame those stars As daylight doth a lamp; her eye in heaven Would through the airy region stream so bright That birds would sing and think it were not night. See how she leans her cheek upon her hand. O, that I were a glove upon that hand, That I might touch that cheek! Juliet: Ay me. Romeo: She speaks. O, speak again, bright angel, for thou art As glorious to this night, being o’er my head, As is a winged messenger of heaven Unto the white-upturned wond’ring eyes Of mortals that fal back to gaze on him When he bestrides the lazy puffing cluds And sails upon the bosom of the air.
In my interpretation this scene between the lovers represents the dawning of Christianity; so Juliet, aloft, is slightly removed from Romeo, just as the sun and nature became slightly removed from people under the Christian framework. Act III, scene 5 Romeo: …I must be gone and live, or stay and die. Juliet: O, think’st thou we shal ever meet again? This scene between the lovers represents the era in which Shakespeare wrote his plays. By 1603, the end of the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, coal had become the primary fuel for England, and wood (i.e. the sun) had become second. England was the first nation to leave the sun economy, but it was not the last to do so. The sky of London was filled with coal smoke at this time.
Act V, scene 3 Romeo: ….A, dear Juliet, Why art thou yet so fair? Shakespeare used the basic science of Giordano Bruno, who posited a thermodynamic model of heliocentrism. The sun was the main source of energy for the earth. So it seems
that Shakespeare speculated that fossil fuels may eventual y go out of style due to costs of extraction (represented by the line “Gregory, on my word, we’ll not carry coals”).