A short course in Market Research with Ray Poynter (English language) Lesson 07 Thursday, 24 July Ch. 07, B2B (Business to Business) Ch. 21, Political Polling Ch. 20, International Research @RayPoynter firstname.lastname@example.org
Dates and Modules Introduction 01 The context for market research Thu 3 July Communicating results 02 Quantitative research Tue 8 July Writing questionnaires 03 Qualitative research Thu 10 July Analysing qualitative data 04 Major applications of research Tue 15 July Mobile market research Emerging research methods 05 Communities Thu 17 July Social media research 06 How to analyse quantitative data Tue 22 July Quantitative analysis techniques Fri 25 July Pricing research B2B (business to business) 07 International research Thu 24 July Political polling Research ethics, Guidelines and laws 08 Current areas of sensitivity Tue 29 July Questions from new researchers
Part A B2B – BUSINESS-TO-BUSINESS
What is B2B? • Business to Business – B2C is consumer research (business to consumer) • In B2B the respondents represent their company/business – IT managers, CEOs, accountants, electricians etc. • But also, sometimes: – Government and local government – Hospitals and doctor’s who buy supplies – Not for profit organisations
Why is B2B different? • Businesses can be hard to define – What is the universe? (or population?) – If a business has 2 sites, which site, what about 100 sites? • Who to interview? • Business decision making may involve multiple people • Sample can be much harder to obtain – And/or more expensive • Sampling and weighting can be much harder*
Sampling and Weighting • Consider the global market research industry • There are tens of thousands of MR companies • But: – 41% of market research conducted by just 6 companies – Do we weight the data so the 6 cases are worth 41%? – What if only 3 of them will do interviews?
80:20 Rule • The 80:20 rule is a guide, not a rule, not a law • In most cases, about 80% of a B2B market will be conducted by 20% of the businesses – Unlike consumer research • So, getting a good representation of the 20% is key
Collecting B2B Data • B2B tends to be more varied than B2C • Includes: – Online • Panels • Email lists – Telephone – Face-to-face • At the business • At events, e.g. trade shows – Postal • Choose the best solution for your problem
B2B Online Panels • Generally, B2B panel samples are not as good as B2C samples • The link between business structure and the sample tends to be weak • Focuses on those willing to be interviewed • If incentives are high, cheating may happen
B2B and Ethics • All the normal rules apply • But! – Although B2B research is good – Industrial espionage is often illegal – Don’t cross the line • Many companies have policies that restrict their staff taking part in MR
Finding Sample • B2B online panels – Good for some uses, but not everything • Specialist recruiters • Business directories • Telephone recruiting • Events and functions • Trade press and mailings • Marketing lists
Part B POLITICAL POLLING
What is Political Polling? “Political polling uses a short, well designed survey, to find out what the public think on a topic of public interest or what their political intentions are – often in terms of voting. Organisations such as ESOMAR, WAPOR, and AAPOR have created specific standards to define how an opinion poll should be conducted.” 1. Usually, polling is used to try to find out how people will vote at an election. 2. Or, how they would vote if there were an election.
Why is Political Polling So Important? • Most research companies do not conduct political polling. • Political Polling is a very small percentage of market research spend. • But! – It is one of the public faces of market research. – When polling goes wrong, it is bad news for all of us.
1936 US Presidential Election • American magazine, Literary Digest, wanted to predict the Presidential election • Mailed 10 million questionnaires – 2 million replies – in 1936 • Predicted Landon would beat Roosevelt – But Roosevelt won • Why? – Sample phone owners, car owners, buyers of the magazine – During an economic recession
Dewey? But, a if a few thousand voters in 3 states (California, Ohio, & Illinois had voted differently, Dewey would have won. Small mistakes in Polling can have big effects. 1948 US Presidential Election. Chicago Tribune prints the headline “Dewey Defeats Truman”. But Truman had 303 votes to Dewey’s 189.
Eric Cantor June 2014 Eric Cantor, House Majority Leader, one of the most powerful men in America Polls predicted 30 point win (65% to 35%) He LOST in the Primary, 56% to 44%
How Often are the Polls Right? • The polls are usually right – In terms of who wins – And, in terms of shares of votes • That is why their failures are such big news
Do Polls Just Report the Survey Results? • Usually no • Not everybody is polled • Some people don’t tell the truth • Some people are not going to vote • So, most pollsters model the data – Removing, down weighting, or re-allocating don’t knows – Weighting the data to how people voted last time – This works well unless there are new parties or new patterns
Can Polls be Conducted Everywhere? • No • Some countries ban them totally • Some only allow them if they work with the Government • Some ban them in the immediate run up to an election • In general, market researchers think Polling should be allowed – Because it gives more information to the voter
Part C INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH
International Research Shown in Module 4 There is a chapter on international research, so we will come back to it. 1. International is more global these days – It used to be USA, Western Europe, & Japan 2. No single method works across the world – But international online panels make it look easier than it is! 3. Costs, standards, and respondent co-operation vary across the world 4. Many of the new interactive MR techniques can generate very high translation costs – For example discussion forums
What is International Research? • Research in a country which is not the researcher’s own country – E.g. a Japanese company conducting research in China • Research conducted in two countries – E.g. China and Japan • Research conducted in multiple countries
Countries Differ in Many Ways • Culture – Languages, idioms, even days of the week (many Muslim countries have Friday/Saturday weekend). • Development – Money, technology, literacy, & product usage. • Laws and customs – Determines what can be asked, what permission is needed, and whether data can be moved out of the country. • Diversity – Some countries have multiple religions and languages, even some small countries – Switzerland 8 million people, 3 main languages
Can I Ask the Same Questions in Every Country? • For comparability, you want to try • But! – Answer lists vary, e.g. brand lists – Some laws are different (e.g. China and social research) – Some customs are different (gambling and alcohol in some Muslim countries) – Some things don’t translate well • Sister from English to Japanese • 教育ママ to English If when you translate a word/phrase you have to use a much longer expression, it is not the same concept.
Can I Just Use English? • This is quite common – Because there are so many English speakers – And, it makes it quicker, cheaper, and easier • But – English speakers are likely to be • Higher income • Better educated • With different media habits • Different brand preferences • Best to say no if English is spoken by less than about 70% of the population
How is International Research Commissioned and Managed? 1. Client places the whole job with one agency who has operations covering every country 2. Client places the job with one agency who sub-contracts some of it: – Local agencies – Field companies 3. Client uses several agencies, in different countries – Can be cheaper, usually more time consuming
Typical International Project - 1 Agency Country Client 2 Country 2 Client Agency Agency Country Country Country 1 1 4 Client Country 3 Agency Country 5
Typical International Project - 2 Client Country 2 Client Agency Global Country Country Fieldwork 1 1 Company Client Country 3
How is International F2F Qual Organised? 1. Researchers from agency travel to every country and oversee fieldwork 2. Local moderators briefed, – Transcripts translated – Central analysis 3. Local moderators briefed – Local analysis to a template – Central review and summary
Key Ethical and Legal Differences Around the World • Contact laws – e.g. autodialers • Definition of informed consent • Types of questions that can be asked • What is the age of a child? • Language laws (e.g. Wales and Quebec) • Incentives (prize draws can be regulated) • Use of data (only for initial purpose?) • Movement of data
Online Studies – bad example Internet penetration: Japan 80% Indonesia 22% India 11% Claimed behaviour And, don’t forget baths