Communicative language teaching in the 21st century: The ‘principled communicative approach’ Zoltán Dörnyei (University of Nottingham)
¾ Over the past two decades “communicative language teaching” (CLT) has become a real buzzword in language teaching methodology, but the extent to which the term covers a well-defined and uniform method is highly questionable. ¾ In fact, since the genesis of CLT in the early 1970s in the UK and the United States, its proponents have developed a very wide range of variants that were only loosely related to each other. So, what is ‘communicative language teaching’?
II. WHAT IS COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING?
¾ Communicative language teaching first appeared in the 1970s to promote the teaching of active and meaningful communicative skills – i.e. communicative competence – “through learner participation in communicative events” (Savignon, 1990, p. 210). o Activities promote real communication, that is, engage learners in the authentic, functional use of language. o Classroom communicative situations should resemble real-life communication as much as possible. o Fluency is more important than accuracy. o Typical communicative activities: role-plays, discussions, problem-solving tasks, simulations, projects and games.
III. WHAT IS THE PROBLEM WITH COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING?
¾ The communicative reform was centred around the radical renewal of the linguistic course content – i.e. communicative competence – without any systematic psychological conception of learning to accompany it. ¾ Thus, communicative syllabuses were informed by a number of elaborate theories, e.g.: o Austin and Searle’s speech act theory, o Hymes’ model of communicative competence and its application to L2 proficiency by Canale and Swain (1980; Canale, 1983), o Halliday’s systemic functional grammar. In contrast, the only learning-specific principle that was available for CLT practitioners was the broad tenet of ‘learning through doing’, referring to the assumption that the learners’ communicative competence develops automatically through their active participation in ‘seeking situational meaning’, that is, their engaging in meaningful communicative tasks. ¾ Thus, it is fair to conclude that CLT did not properly address the psychology of learning. ¾ Partly because of the vagueness of the ‘seeking situational meaning’ tenet, the varieties of CLT practised around the world are rather diverse and are often contradictory to each other (e.g. with respect to teaching grammar). → “There is no single text or authority on it, nor any single model that is universally accepted as authoritative” (Richards & Rodgers, 2001, p. 155).
IV. TOWARDS A PSYCHOLOGICALLY VALID ‘PRINCIPLED COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH’
Key dilemma in language teaching: Explicit versus implicit learning
¾ Explicit learning: The learner’s conscious and deliberate attempt to master some material or solve a problem. This is the learning type emphasised by most school instruction. ¾ Implicit learning: Acquiring skills and knowledge without conscious awareness, that is, automatically and with no conscious attempt to learn them. ¾ Dilemma: While most academic learning is heavily based on explicit learning, the main language learning model for humans – the mastery of our mother tongue – predominantly involves implicit processes without any explicit teaching: children acquire the complex system of their L1 through engaging in natural and meaningful communication with their parents and other caretakers. Thus, if the implicit L1 acquisition process is a universally shared experience, isn’t it the obvious conclusion that we ought to model any subsequent L2 learning enterprise after this? ¾ Problem: Implicit learning, which does such a great job in generating native-speaking L1 proficiency in infants, does not seem to work efficiently when we want to master an L2 at a later stage in our lives. In consequence, the ineffectiveness of implicit learning mechanisms makes it necessary for us to draw on the additional resources of various explicit learning procedures. ¾ Conclusion: The real challenge of modern language instruction is find ways to maximise the cooperation of explicit and implicit learning. ¾ In my view, three key issues lie at the heart of the most forward-pointing discussions about the explicit-implicit cooperation in the literature: (a) focus on form and form-focused instruction; (b) fluency and automatization; and (c) formulaic language.
Focus on form (FonF) and form-focused instruction (FFI)
¾ FonF and FFI indicate a concern with the structural system of language from a communicative perspective. In other words, they represent a halfway position between a concern for communicative meaning and the linguistic features of the language code, calling for a primarily meaning-focused instruction in which some degree of attention is paid to form. ¾ Thus FonF/FFI refer to a new type of grammar instruction embedded within a communicative approach. According to Rod Ellis (2008), the main types include: o Input-based options (e.g. input flooding) o Explicit options (e.g. inductive instruction) o Production options (e.g. inducing learners to produce utterances containing the target structure) o Corrective feedback (e.g. recasts or explicit correction)
Fluency and automatization
¾ In the psychological literature fluency is discussed under the broader concept of ‘automaticity/ automatization’, and the promotion of fluency is usually subsumed under ‘skill learning theory’. Thus, from a psychological point of view the relevant issue to explore is how L2 skills can be automatized. ¾ Skill learning theory proposes the following basic sequence: Automatization requires procedural (i.e. implicit) knowledge, which in turn requires initial declarative (i.e. explicit) input and conscious consecutive practice. o Accordingly, a systematically designed fluency-building task will include an initial declarative input stage and subsequent extended practice, which can be further divided into controlled practice and open-ended practice
o This ‘declarative input→controlled practice→open-ended practice’ sequence is reminiscent of the well-known methodological progression of presentation→practice→production (PPP). ¾ The three phases of skill learning (for more details, see Anderson, 2000; DeKeyser, 2007).: o The essence of the declarative input stage is to provide clear and concise rules and sufficient examples, which then the learner can interpret and rehearse, thereby raising awareness of and internalising the skill. o Controlled practice should offer opportunities for abundant repetition within a narrow context, which is what drills are all about. Therefore, the key to the effectiveness of this stage is to design interesting drills that are not demotivating (see Dörnyei, 2001; Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011). o Finally, open-ended practice involves the continuous improvement in the performance of a skill that is already well established in a wider and wider applicability range.
¾ There is something fundamental about formulaic language such as lexical phrases, idioms, conventionalised expressions, collocations, etc. (for overviews, see Schmitt, 2004; Wray, 2008): o “communicative competence is not a matter of knowing rules … It is much more a matter of knowing a stock of partially pre-assembled patterns, formulaic frameworks.” (Widdowson, 1989, p. 135) o Sinclair’s ‘idiom principle’: “The overwhelming nature of this evidence leads us to elevate the principle of idiom from being a rather minor feature, compared with grammar, to being at least as important as grammar in the explanation of how meaning arises in text.” (Sinclair, 1991, p. 112) ¾ Formulaic language competence is directly linked to automatized, fluent language production: Formulaic sequences are stored in the memory as single units and therefore their retrieval is cognitively relatively undemanding, This in turn allows the speaker to attend to other aspects of communication and to plan larger pieces of discourse, which would naturally facilitate fluent language production under real-time conditions. ¾ There has been relatively little research on how to teach formulaic language; recently, however, things have started to change and some important studies have also been published on the classroom practice of promoting chunks and formulaic sequences (e.g. Boers et al. 2006; Gatbonton and Segalowitz 2005; Taguchi 2007). ¾ The most principled attempt over the past two decades to develop a coherent approach for the promotion of formulaic sequences has been made by Gatbonton and Segalowitz (1988, 2005). Their proposed methodology is called ACCESS, standing for ‘Automatization in Communicative Contexts of Essential Speech Segments’, and it attempts to offer a principled adaptation of communicative language teaching that aims to generate fluency by drawing on the theories of automatization and formulaic language.
V. SUMMARY: SEVEN PRINCIPLES OF THE NEW ‘PRINCIPLED COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH’ (PCA)
1. The personal significance principle: PCA should be meaning-focused and personally significant. This has been the basic tenet of student –centred, communicative language teaching and we believe that this principle is just as valid now as when it was first formulated. 2. The controlled practice principle: While the overall aim of communicative language learning is to prepare the learners for meaningful communication, skill learning theory suggests that PCA should also include controlled practice activities to promote the automatization of L2 skills
3. The declarative input principle: To facilitate automatization, PCA should involve explicit initial input components that are then ‘proceduralised’ through practice. This declarative input can be offered in many ways, including the potential utilisation of accelerated learning techniques and even rote learning. 4. The focus on form principle: While maintaining an overall meaning-oriented approach, PCA should also pay attention to the formal/structural aspects of the L2 that determine accuracy and appropriateness at the linguistic, discourse and pragmatic levels. 5. The formulaic language principle: PCA should include the teaching of formulaic language as a featured component. There should be sufficient awareness raising of the significance and the pervasiveness of formulaic language in real-life communication, and selected phrases should be practiced and recycled intensely. 6. The language exposure principle: PCA should offer learners extensive exposure to large amounts of L2 input that can feed the learners’ implicit learning mechanisms. In order to make the most of this exposure, learners should be given some explicit preparation in terms of pre-task activities, to prime them for maximum intake. 7. The focused interaction principle: PCA should offer learners ample opportunities to participate in genuine L2 interaction. For best effect, such communicative practice should always have a specific formal or functional focus, and should always be associated with target phrases to practice.
VI. REFERENCES ¾ This paper is based on Chapter 7 of Dörnyei (2009). The psychology of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Anderson, J. R. (2000). Learning and memory: An integrated approach (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Boers, F., Eyckmans, J., Kappel, J., Stengers, H., & Demecheleer, M. (2006). Formulaic sequences and perceived oral proficiency: Putting a Lexical Approach to the test. Language Teaching Research, 10(3), 245–261. Canale, M. (1983). From communicative competence to communicative language pedagogy. In J. C. Richards & R. W. Schmidt (Eds.), Language and Communication (pp. pp. 2-27). Harlow: Longman. Canale, M., & Swain, M. (1980). Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. Applied Linguistics, 1, 1-47. Celce-Murcia, M., Dörnyei, Z., & Thurrell, S. (1997). Direct approaches in L2 instruction: A turning point in communicative language teaching? TESOL Quarterly, 31, 141-152. DeKeyser, R. M. (Ed.). (2007). Practice in second language: Perspectives from applied linguistics and cognitive psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press. Dörnyei, Z. (2001). Motivational strategies in the language classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Dörnyei, Z. (2007). Research methods in applied linguistics: Quantitative, qualitative and mixed methodologies. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Dörnyei, Z. (in press). Communicative language teaching in the 21st century: The ‘principled communicative approach’. Perspectives. Dörnyei, Z., & Ushioda, E. (2011). Teaching and researching motivation (2nd ed.). Harlow: Longman. Ellis, R. (2008). The study of second language acquisition (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Gatbonton, E., & Segalowitz, N. (1988). Creative automatization: Principles for promoting fluency within a communicative framework. TESOL Quarterly, 22(3), 473-492. Gatbonton, E., & Segalowitz, N. (2005). Rethinking communicative language teaching: A focus on access to fluency. Canadian Modern Language Review, 61(3), 325-353. Savignon, S. J. (1990). Communicative language teaching: Definitions and directions. In A. J. E. (Ed.), Georgetown University round table on language and linguistics (pp. 207-217). Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. Schmitt, N. (Ed.). (2004). Formulaic sequences. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Sinclair, J. (1991). Corpus, concordance, collocation. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Spada, N. (2007). Communicative language teaching: Current status and future prospects. In J. Cummins & C. Davison (Eds.), International handbook of English language teaching (Vol. 1, pp. 271-288). New York: Springer. Taguchi, N. (2007). Chunk learning and the development of spoken discourse in a Japanese as a foreign language classroom. Language Teaching Research, 11(4), 433–457. Widdowson, H. G. (1989). Knowledge of language and ability for use. Applied Linguistics, 10, 128-137. Wray, A. (2008). Formulaic language: Pushing the boundaries. Oxford: Oxford University Press