Information Seeking Behaviour in Electronic Environment: Issues and Trends Indian Statistical Institute Documentation Research and Training Centre Colloquium (2) MSLIS 2012-2014
1. Introduction and Overview Debashis Naskar 2. Model for Information Seeking Behaviour Sumanta Bag 3. Information Seeking Behaviour in Electronic Environment Sayon Roy 4. Current Trends and Applications Kaustav Saha 5. Issues and Conclusion Vikas Bhushan
Information, usually seen as the precondition of debate, is better understood as its by-product. When we get into arguments that focus and engage our attention, we become avid seekers of relevant information. Otherwise we take in information passively –if we take it in at all. -Christopher Lasch (1995)
But what when we do not know where to find it? And we still want information?
Information Search Systems –The Basic Elements Link Search formulation Search Software Search of Information Workstation • Searcher • Search Formulation • Workstation Retrieved Items • Link to Computer System • Search Software or Engine • Store Information • Retrieved Items
Search for a Particular Book in a Library…
Definitions… Information Seeking Information seeking is the purposive seeking for information as a consequence of a need to satisfy some goal. -Tom Wilson(1999)
Definitions… Information Seeking Gary Marchionini in 1993 characterized information seeking as a problem solving activity dependent on: • The Seeker • The Problem • The Search system • The Outcomes
Types of Searches Searches can be divided into three broad categories: • Known item searches • Factual searched • Subject searched
Model for Information Seeking Behaviour
Models of Information Seeking • The early years of ‘user studies’ research • The switch from studies of library and document use to user behaviour • An early model of ‘information behaviour’
Wilson’s Model of Information Behaviour - 1981
Wilson’s Model of Information-Seeking Behaviour -1981
Kuhlthau Model of the Information Search Process Each stage – task - in the information search process incorporates three realms: 1. Affective (feelings) 2. Cognitive (thoughts) 3. Physical (actions)
Kuhlthau Model of the Information Search Process
Wilson’s 1996 Model of Information Behaviour
A Problem Solving Model of the Information Seeking and Searching Process
Information Seeking Behaviour in Electronic Environment
Information provision • Access to library resources -Making content easier to use -Making systems as intuitive to use as Google
Personal Information Infrastructures • An individual persons collection of abilities, experience and resources to gather, use and communicate information. • Collection of interacting mental models for specific information system. • Models for general cognitive skills (inferencing, recognizing salience) • Models for specific cognitive skills related to organizing and accessing information( filling rules, reading).
Personal Information Infrastructure Mental Model(s) Cognitive Skil s Cognitive Events, etc. Executive & Specific, e.g, Search System Attitudes Information Seeking Knowledge Domain General Material Resources Time, etc. Money Equipment Documents
Meta-Cognition • Ability to reflect on one’s own thoughts and action in the past monitor them as they precede and plan those that would be used to meet future needs. • Personal information infrastructure is guided by meta-cognitive activity. • Influenced by affective states such as motivation and attitude. • Influenced by physical states such as fatigue and comfort levels.
Material Resources for Personal Information Infrastructure • Objective is to gather, generate, manage and communicate information. • It includes people, books, computers, telecommunication line and other tangible things. • Also includes money and time. • Material resources helps to achieve long-term, near- term and many immediate goals.
Electronic Technology : Influence on Personal Information Infrastructures • Electronic technology can amplify and augment our abilities and performance(Douglas Engelbart,1963). • Computer applications such as electronic text are changing the fundamental processes of writing and reading(Jay David Bolter,1991). • Electronic Technology also affects the ‘metacognitive’ activity by changing our expectations. • The interactions between cognition and technology are at the cynosure of any ISB study.
People and Electronic environment : Interactivity • Interactivity- the propensity to act in unison with external objects or other people- is a basic human characteristics. • Bureaucratic Protocol- cumbersome communication mechanisms. • Electronic Systems are slowly replacing human ‘front ends’ from information institutions. • Interactivity allowed the personal computer to develop its market and • PC’s are becoming increasingly popular as tools for group work and decision making.
Human Computer Interaction (HCI) • HCI explores theories that explain the interaction among human and computers and the interfaces that supports these interaction. • A crucial design decision involving all HCI is determining the degree of mix between human-human and computer-computer model. • A goal of HCI research is to develop input- output devices and mechanisms that logistically creates mapping between human and computer channel for communcations.
Developments in Electronic Environments • The computer systems of the 1960s and 70s where based on analytical analysis. • Manual environments started taking advantage of the power of electronic computation and storage. • During 1980s and 90s new trends emerged in electronic information seeking by allowing broader classes of information seekers to use highly interacting browsing strategies. • Development of Graphically User Interfaces (GUI) and Window-Icon-Mouse- Pointing Systems (WIMPS) enabled easier manipulation of data.
Information seeking behaviour • How different is the Google Generation? • Will they seek information in new ways? • Does technology matter?
Information seeking behaviour in the Google Age • The Google Report -BL/JISC funded -Effects of digital transition • CIBER’s study -Literature reviews of academic researchers ISB Google Generation, born 1994 and later; Generation Y, born between 1978 and 1993; Generation X, born before 1978 -Longitudinal studies -Log analysis -Review of new technologies
Current Trends and Applications -Kaustav Saha
Historical Overview • Early electronic computer developed and soon after world war II where used primarily for ‘Number Crunching’ or ‘Code Breaking’. • In 1945 Vannevar Bush published an article motivating scientists to use their innovation for constructive purposes. • Bush suggested developing a system which would store information and would be search thoroughly through establishment of proper link for navigation. • In 1951, MIT carried out investigations for facilitating computer based text searching techniques. Contd…
Historical Overview • 1960, System Development Corporation (SDC), California, publicly demonstrated an interactive system known as Photosynthex, which searched entries of an encyclopaedia. • 1961 HP Luhn of IBM develop programs for generating keyword indexes to the title of articles appearing in Chemical abstract. • Such initiatives were being made to contain the ‘Information Overload’ of Scientific, Technical and Medial (STM) publishing during that period. • 1980s people started using OPAC s to search for a electronically stored information. • Late 1990s, electronic databases of bibliographic information emerged ( COMPENDEX, Medline, INSPEC).
Online Search Service • General -Bath Information and Data Service (BIDS). (www.bids.ac.uk ) -OCLC First Search.(www.oclc.org) • Scientific -Elsevier Engineering Information Inc.(www.ei.org) • News/business -Dow Jones Interactive Publishing.(bis.dowjones.com) -Financial Times.(www.info.ft.com) -Reuters.(www.reuters.com)
The Internet… • Alta Vista (www.altavista.digital.com) • Excite (www.excite.com) • Lycos (www.lycos.com) • Yahoo! (www.yahoo.com) • Google (www.google.com)
What i at is the G e Google G Gener eration? • Synonyms: – Generation Xbox – - iPod generation – instant-messaging generation – Internet generation • Quick answers and Instant gratification • A verity of learning experience • Feel constantly connected to the web • A poor understanding and lack of respect for Intellectual Property.
Consequences of Web • Clearly, the existence of the Internet and the plethora of online tools it has generated have enhanced the ways of information seeking behavior of the users as a whole whether it be in traditional or the Electronic environment. • In the face of the technological changes that have been occurring in relation to information search, mediated Library services are declining.
Issues with Electronic searching • There are issues of literacy among the users in relation to online information searching. • Many online users still turn to printed materials and print-based and electronic information sources, although for different purposes and at different times in the information-seeking cycle.
Role of Libraries in Electronic world • Libraries holds a significant repository so its holdings must be digitized. • Online Interfaces must be dynamic and multi-modal to engage interest. • Virtual library environments could be established in which librarian acts as avatars who escort users around a virtual library to the materials, the user wants to access.
ICT has Greatly Affected the information Environment Librarians and other users of information must adapt to the changing technological environment to: • be able to use electronic resources and access tools. • be able to respond to new user information needs and information-seeking behaviors. • be able to provide solutions to multifarious queries of Google generations.
References • Larege, A , Tedd, L.A and Hartley, R.J. (2001).Information Seeking in the Online Age:Principles and Practice. Munchen : Saur • Case, D.O. (2002) . Looking for Information A urvey of Research on Information Seeking, Needs, and Behaviour. USA : Academic Press • Wilson, T.D. (1999). Model of Information Behaviour Research. Journal of Documentation, 55(3), 249 – 270 • Robson, A and Robinson, L (2013). Building on models of information behaviour: linking information seeking and communication. Journal of Documentation, 69(2), 169 – 193 • Hultgren, F (2013). The stranger’s tale: information seeking as an outsider activity. Journal of Documentation, 69(2), 275 – 294 Contd…
References • Hossain, Md.A and Islam, Md. S (2012). Information-Seeking by print media journalists in Rajshahi. International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, 38(4), 283 – 288 • Gary, M (1995). Information Seeking in Electronic Environments. UK : Cambridge University Press • Gunter, B (2009). The Google Generation: Are ICT Innovations Changing Information Seeking Behaviour?, London : Chandos Publishing •