DOIs for Book Publishers Carol Anne Meyer, CrossRef @meyercarol @CrossRefNews BISG Identifiers Committee 1 October 2013
Today’s Agenda • What are DOIs? • IDF, Registration Agencies, and CrossRef • Best Practices for CrossRef book DOIs • Linking to and from books • Assigning CrossRef DOIs to books • Finding book DOIs • ISSNs and ISBNs for books & series • What’s next?
What is a DOI? Digital Object Identifier Source: pasukaru76 from Flickr
It is alphanumeric
It is unique It uniquely identifies content
It has two parts Ass m i m g e n ber e ber m e m de em b e B Assigned TO em er YB Assigned TO m r Y
Creating a DOI Suffix: Keep it short and simple 10.1632/074069503X85526 10.5664/sleep.1000 10.3183/NPPRJ-1986-01-03-p004-013 10.3103/S0005105507050032 10.4260/BJFT20094508 Allowed characters: "a-z", "A-Z", "0-9" and "-._;()/” More info: Establishing a Sufix Pattern
So, what is the relationship between an RA and the IDF?
International DOI Foundation (IDF) • Oversees central DOI System • Promotes DOI as a standard • Provides organizational infrastructure that ensures persistence and interoperability 18
IDF Registration Agencies (RAs) CrossRef ISTIC DataCite DOI OPOCE mEDRA EIDR Japan Link Center (JaLC) Bowker Airiti CNKI Publications Office of the European Union (OP)
CrossRef is the largest RA, but others are growing % of Total DOIs by Registration Agency ISTIC; 2% DataCite; 1% DOI; 1% OPOCE; 1% mEDRA; 1% EIDR; 0% Japan Link Center (JaLC); 0% CrossRef; 21% Registration Agency; 72%
Handle-DOI-CrossRef relationship Handle general-purpose naming service Requires customized solution DOI organizational structure for persistence CrossRef programmatic linking and discovery service Easy for publisher to automate
CrossRef/DOI Community • DOIs for scholarly content • Develops and maintains the DOI standard • Develops and maintains the Handle system upon which the DOI executes
What Does CrossRef Do? • Provides technology infrastructure for linking Registers DOIs with the Handle System Provides discoverability services for those DOIs • Provides business infrastructure for linking One agreement with CrossRef is a linking agreement with al CrossRef publishers
Cross-publisher means… No need for bilateral negotiations between publishers, or between a third-party and individual publishers 24 Photo: Alexandra Lee
?Why do publishers join CrossRef? To get persistent identifiers for their content To drive more traffic to their content To turn references into hyperlinks To pull in cited-by links (who cites this?) to get more traffic Participate in other collaborative services (CrossCheck, CrossMark)
It’s all about discoverability
provides different services than other RAs • Reference linking • Cited-by linking • CrossRef Metadata Service feeds to Affiliates • CrossCheck Powered by plagiarism screening iThenticate • CrossMark update identification service
Why publishers assign CrossRef DOIs to books • Persistent linking---books interlink with journal articles and other scholarly content • Inbound links drive traffic; • Outbound links add value and utility to readers • CrossRef Book DOIs can resolve to information on purchasing -- for both print and online books • Access/authentication remain under publisher control
is “business-model neutral” • Links deliver reader to front door • Access control up to publisher or distributor Photo: Tawheed Manzoor
The Numbers • 214 publishers deposit book content at CrossRef • 414,600 book titles • 7,031,461 total book DOIs (Includes chapters and reference entries)
membership • Represents 76 countries 33
CrossRef Book DOI deposits have been growing rapidly Book DOIs 7,000,000 6,000,000 5,000,000 4,000,000 3,000,000 2,000,000 1,000,000 0
Largest CrossRef Book Publishers • Springer-Verlag • IGI Global • Smithsonian Institution (Biodiversity • ASTM International Heritage Library) • American Chemical Society (ACS) • Cambridge University Press • Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishing • Elsevier • MBLWHOI Library • Wiley Blackwel • Emerald (MCB UP ) • Nature Publishing Group • Woodhead Publishing • Oxford University Press (OUP) • Integrated Ocean Dril ing Program Texas • CRC Press • American Mathematical Society (AMS). • World Bank • American Geophysical Union (AGU) • Walter de Gruyter • Sage Publications • American Psychological Association (APA) • Society for Industrial and Applied • World Scientific Mathematics • Bril Academic Publishers • Netbiblo See http://crossref.org/06members/51depositorB.html for complete list
Best Practices Assigning, linking and CrossRef DOI use • Deposit DOIs at the title and chapter/entry level. • Add outbound links from references in books. • Deposit references from books with CrossRef to enable CrossRef Cited-by Linking.
The future is now: Cited-by Linking for books
Best Practices Updates and Versions • Major version – updates affect interpretation. Publisher notifies readers that content has changed. – new editions – errata – corrigenda • Minor version – unlikely to affect interpretation. No publisher notification.
Best Practices Updates and Versions • Assign new CrossRef DOIs to new major versions or editions of books, chapters and entries. Older versions remain available online with links to the latest version. • Do not assign new CrossRef DOIs to minor new versions of books, chapters and entries. • Use Multiple Resolution to associate one CrossRef DOI with multiple URLs, i.e. for electronic formats or multiple hosting platforms.
What kind of Publication Record information could be available? • License types • Funding disclosures (FundRef) • Conflict of interest statements • Publication history (submission, revision and accepted dates) • Location of data deposits or registries • Peer review process used • CrossCheck plagiarism screening • and more...
Best Practices: Citation Matching Book Title Queries (finding the DOI) • Minimum query: – book title – book author – book year • And as many as possible of these: – editor (where appropriate) – publisher
Displaying CrossRef DOIs in Book Citations • The DOI should appear at the end of the reference • The DOI should be encoded as a hyperlink Example: Corrigan, John. Religion and Emotion - Approaches and Interpretations. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. Oxford Scholarship Online. Oxford University Press. 2005. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ 0195166248.001.0001
Note: This is a change from the previous format doi:10.1093/0195166248.001.0001
Book Title Level Metadata • Required data includes: – Type: edited book, reference, monograph, or other – Title – Publisher – Publication date – ISBN • Optional data includes: – series title, and series ISSN* – volume and edition numbers – Book DOI and URL * If you include a series title it must have an ISSN
ISSNs & ISBNs in CrossRef Schema • ISSNs are assignable to a series title and not book title. • ISSN is directly bound to series title and must be present in series • ISSN check digit will be verified upon deposit – invalid ISSNs will be rejected • Volume is mandatory if series_metadata is present and volume level title is NOT present • Titles and ISSNs/ISBNs in deposit must match titles associated with ISSNs/ISBNs in the system • New titles will create a title entry in the system – updates/additions to this title must remain consistent • Contact firstname.lastname@example.org to change titles
Chapter Level Metadata • Required data includes: – Chapter title – DOI and URL • Optional data: – Contributors – Pagination – Component number
Simple-Text Query • A freely available, non-XML alternative for reference linking • A custom version of Inera’s eXtyles® refXpress parses unstructured references into granular, valid XML and returns any matching DOIs for those references
How much? CrossRef Deposit Fees for Books • Current Material – Titles: $1.00 – Chapters/entries < 250 per title: 25 cents – Chapters/entries > 250 per title: 15 cents – Chapters/entries > 10,000 items: 12 cents • Backfiles – All content types: 15 cents – More than 1 million records: 12 cents • No additional membership fee
Linking 5 centuries of content 1665
How much? • No charge for metadata or URL updates • No additional annual fee for CrossRef members • Annual fees based on publishing revenue • Annual fees range from $250-$50,000 • Theoretical conflict fee if more than one DOI assigned to same metadata and not resolved. • Fees have not risen for more than 5 years. • Additional fees for optional services like CrossMark.
What’s Next • Explore DOIs for mobile content • Improve and simplify multiple resolution • Best practices for common ebook format metadata • Can we accept ONIX in addition to XML?
Possible Multiple Resolution in the supply chain
Book Interest Group • Jennifer Kemp, Springer, Chair • 70 ish Members • Open to al book publisher members of CrossRef, and others • Includes major book hosting platforms
Book Interest Group • Teleconferences several times per year • Working groups on issues of importance to book publishers • 1st in-person meeting in mid-November in Cambridge, MA at CrossRef Annual Meeting
What’s in it for publishers? No publisher is an island Collaboration and connection is the key