Schedule Development – A Methodical Approach to Building a Schedule Chris Carson, PSP, CCM John Potter, PSP Director Project Controls Project Controls Manager Alpha Corporation Alpha Corporation
Resources for Scheduling • PM P I – Project Management Institute – Practice Standard for Scheduling – Practice Standard for WBS & EV • PM P I-Co C S o S – College of Scheduling – Scheduling Excellence Initiative (SEI) project writing Best Practices and Guidelines – Scheduling/Claims • AA A C A E C i E i – Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering – Publishing Recommended Practices • CM C AA A – Construction Management Association of America – Revising Time Management Chapter of the Construction Management Standards of Practice
Design or Development? Refer to 2008 presentation at PMI-CoS national conference “Schedule Design; Planning for Schedule Development” Separate the two processes Design first Development second Need to plan (Schedule Design) to create the schedule (Schedule Development)
Schedule Design Why design a schedule? A schedule meets the criteria for a “project” in itself A schedule is a guideline or plan for a project A schedule provides a a methodical approach for a project Keeps the schedule development on track Prevents rework due to late understanding of needs Allows buy-in from end users prior to Development Makes the schedule development session much more meaningful Documents the assumptions and intention of the schedule For reviewer and approver For future reference To facilitate changes in schedulers Place to capture Lessons Learned
Schedule Design Scope of Design vs. Development Design – Conceptualizing the schedule Planning Starting with the end in mind Providing concept of final product Creating organizational structure to fulfill the concept Development - Building the schedule Input activities Input logic Input durations Review for design compliance Review for CPM methodology best practices Quality control
Schedule Design - Background Design vs. Development – How do PMI & PMBOK handle it? PMBOK identifies six Project Time Management processes, usually defined as part of the project lifecycle, Chapter 6 of PMBOK 4th Edition. Define Activities. Sequence Activities Estimate Activity Resources Estimate Activity Durations Develop Schedule Control Schedule
Schedule Design - Background Design vs. Development – How do PMI & PMBOK handle it? These processes are paralleled by a planning effort by the PM team, part of PMBOK’s “Develop Project Management Plan”, PMBOK Section 4.2 (which sets the format and establishes criteria for developing & controlling the project schedule). These processes are documented in what PMBOK calls a Schedule Management Plan contained in the project management plan. This SMP selects the scheduling methodology and the scheduling tool. PMBOK says the majority of effort in the TM Knowledge Area will occur in the Control Schedule process (Section 6.6)
Schedule Design - Background The inputs for the Time Management Processes used to Develop the Schedule are listed as: These fall under Schedule Design Scope Baseline Activity List Activity Attributes Milestone List Project Scope Statement Resource Requirements Resource Calendars These fall under Schedule Development Project Schedule Network Diagrams Activity Resource Requirements Activity Duration Estimates
Schedule Design - Background Design vs. Development – why emphasize the distinction? Design tends to be ignored in favor of jumping right into development. Many schedulers elect to begin creating activities instead of Designing. Work is subsequently repetitive, with lots of potential for rework. Results tend to be disorganized. Avoid planning mistakes and problems.
PMBOK 3rd Ed. The diagram to the right is a Project Time Management (Schedule) process flow diagram. This diagram gives us an idea about how integral the schedule is to the management of the entire project. The six sections related to schedule development are at the center of the diagram.
Schedule Development – Art or Science? Most texts and good practices state “Identify Activities” & “Develop Logic” and skip any details This is the hardest area for most schedulers Good organization of the schedule is vital It is not that simple Every scheduler starts Schedule Development differently Using the basis from Schedule Design, the process can be defined and structured
Schedule Development - Process Assemble development team Design the schedule Identify Level of detail required Identify output needed – Activity Code & WBS structures Identify scope of work - Activities (input from subs/primes) Develop the schedule Calculate Durations (input from subs/primes) Assign logic (input from subs/primes) Input to computer Analyze and adjust Finalize the schedule QC checklists & verification Seek final buy-in and approval (includes team) Add resources and costs
Schedule Development Team Includes stakeholders: Scheduler Superintendent Project Manager Major trade contractors Needs input from: Owner Estimating Senior management A&E, if Design-Build or plans not ready
Schedule Design – Review Specifications
Schedule Design - WBS • Develop Work Breakdown Structure. • Translate asset scope into component deliverables (“decomposition”). • Ensure consistency in WBS levels, to facilitate comparison.
Schedule Scope & Budget Prepare a Scope & Budget for the work required to prepare and maintain the project schedule. Even if it’s an internal document it will come in handy at some point during the project.
Schedule Design • Technical Scheduling Components • Design Activity Coding structure • Input Driven - Based on need to organize schedule • Look at Stages and Areas (as well as Phases) • Stages: Foundations, Structure, Rough-ins • Areas: Determined by expected progress • Phases: Usually are repetitive sequence activities • Output Driven - Based on need to report to different stakeholders • Based on need to filter & isolate
Schedule Design - Use • Schedule Design Output (Software Driven) • Level of Detail • Determine approach: • Bottom-up (starting with detailed activities) • Top-down (starting with summary schedule) • Both (prepare Top-down, then Bottom-up) • Develop functional Stages, then progress-rate Areas • Review use of schedule • Identify frequency of updates. • Establish smallest activity duration range.
Schedule Design – Level of Detail One e o f o t he t m o m st s t im i p m ort or an a t n d eci c sio i n o s Depends on the nature, size and complexity of the project Need enough activities to reflect intricacies and interdependencies Too few activities will require use of SS and FS lagged activities; harder to analyze High level of detail will make updates more time consuming High level of detail will allow better monitoring & updating Need ability to monitor individual trade contractors Need enough detail to avoid incomplete activities waiting on others to progress Example: Office/educational building, corridors will not be completed with the offices/classrooms, so if they are covered by the same activities, there will be multiple activities progressed to 85% (room finishes complete, but corridor finishes not started)
Schedule Design • Reporting • Define all reports • Provide examples
Schedule Design – Level of Detail Step e s s to t d o ete t r e mi m ne i l evel e l o f o d et e ai a l How will schedule be used? Management tool for daily trade monitoring, look-ahead schedules generated out of main CPM schedule Need weekly data, will update weekly Overview for superintendent to correlate his weekly bar chart which will be used for look-ahead schedules Need monthly data, will update monthly Assess minimum duration For weekly management, smallest typical duration set at 1 to 3 days For monthly overview management, smallest typical duration set at 4 to 10 days
Schedule Design – Level of Detail Step e s s to t d o ete t r e mi m ne i l evel e l o f o d et e ai a l Break down the project into appropriate Stages Each Stage may progress somewhat independently from other Stages (other than Intra-Stage dependencies) Facilities Underground utilities may require some initial work and then run concurrently Foundations will progress alone until sufficiently ahead to start structure Foundations and structure will progress independently from interior work and exterior façade Exterior façade, other than dry-in, will proceed concurrently with interior rough-ins and finishes, but lagged from structure Interior rough-ins will lead interior finishes but can overlap Some interior finishes, such as museum millwork, may require full unencumbered access Site work will proceed separately, but treat as infrastructure
Schedule Design – Level of Detail Step e s s to t d o ete t r e mi m ne i l evel e l o f o d et e ai a l Break down the project into appropriate Stages Each Stage may progress somewhat independently from other Stages (other than Intra-Stage dependencies) Infrastructure & Transportation MOT (Maintenance of Traffic) may dictate sequencing All work proceeds partly independently from other work Earthwork (cut and fill) will progress ahead of but lag utilities Wharf work will proceed separately from piling but lagged Roadway work will progress at a lag from utilities Bridge work will follow abutments but ahead of utilities
Schedule Design – Level of Detail Step e s s to t d o ete t r e mi m ne i l evel e l o f o d et e ai a l Consider how progress will actually happen Review & correct the Area sequencing plan Identify the Areas in the project and assess the rates of production Group Areas with similar rates of production This will keep updates clean and minimize out of sequence or incomplete work - especially true if cost loaded Think about what will prevent an Area from completing If completion can be held up due to other rooms or systems, then separate out those rooms into Areas Important: All sections of the project within each Area should progress at a similar rate Note: The SME (Subject Matter Expert) for each Stage are typically different, but are combined in Areas They won’t be thinking about rate of progress
Schedule Design – Level of Detail Step e s s to t d o ete t r e mi m ne i l evel e l o f o d et e ai a l Group Areas with similar rates of production Keep corridors separate (utilities & traffic will slow progress) Offices, classrooms similar rate of progress Labs, exam rooms, and other specialty rooms will progress slower Auditoriums, meeting rooms, theaters, sanctuary (chancel/nave), Kitchens, Bathrooms, Operating Rooms have significant utilities Mechanical & Electrical Rooms will incur lead time issues as well as long installation durations Second floor space MEP rough-ins will progress after first floor MEP rough-ins
Schedule Development Use Sequencing Plan from Design
Schedule Design – Level of Detail Step e s s to t d o ete t r e mi m ne i l evel e l o f o d et e ai a l Group Areas with similar rates of production Each major trade in infrastructure work will operate at its own rate of production – this is why Linear Scheduling is popular for transportation work Infrastructure/transportation will have varying rates of progress depending on subgrade conditions Sports fields will progress independently of parking lots Plant work will have individual processes that are relatively independent Renovation work will bring in entirely new requirements for phasing, start with these Justice and Courts work will have production rates dictated by security installations or product lead times
Schedule Design – Level of Detail Step e s s to t d o ete t r e mi m ne i l evel e l o f o d et e ai a l Watch for switches in Area sequencing Structure for high-rise will be built from bottom to top Rough-ins will likely follow Finishes will likely not follow: May run horizontally May start at top floor and move down to bottom You may need horizontal (or lateral) logic along with vertical (or linear) logic Rough-in Inspections (linked floor to floor) are predecessor to Hang Drywall (linked side to side)
Schedule Design – Level of Detail Step e s s to t d o ete t r e mi m ne i l evel e l o f o d et e ai a l Identify repetitive work opportunities A full repetitive type project (high-rise, roadway) needs to be treated slightly differently Separate out the stages Detail a small portion of the repetitive work, summarize the major trades and develop the overview schedule from those summarized trades (we call it an Outline Schedule) Watch for switches in Area sequencing Structure for high-rise will be build from bottom to top Rough-ins will likely follow Finishes will likely not follow: May run horizontally May start at top floor and move down to bottom
Schedule Development - Process Develop an Outline Schedule High level overview schedule Provides guidance in overall systems durations Finishes in a medical facility might take 10 weeks Foundation for high-rise might take 2 months Provides guidance in repetitive areas Floor to floor structure cycle time might be 7 days Floor to floor finishes cycle time might be 30 days Station to Station roadway storm sewer might take 4 days Use this Outline Schedule to identify the summary schedule and check for reasonableness Acts as a guideline during detailed development
Schedule Development - Process Start the Detailed Schedule Development Input activities by Area (detail by trade) Foundation area Strip Structural fill Underground utilities Layout footings Dig footings Form/prep footings Set rebar in footings Inspect rebar Pour footings Try to keep each the similar granularity within each Area (can base on durations)
Schedule Development - Process Detailed Schedule Development Use the Activity Code Structure to keep trades separate Develop all activities in all areas Go through each area trade-by-trade Make sure all work scope is covered in each area Check overall scope of work by trade Go through schedule from beginning At each activity, question, “What activity cannot start until this activity is completed (or partially complete)?” Make missing logic connections Ignore dates, just review logic connections & sequencing Identify hard (physical) logic and soft logic
Schedule Development - Process Detailed Schedule Development Go through the schedule and review all durations Sort by Activity Description Compare similar activity scopes to see if durations are same Check full coverage Summarize to trades, look at count of activities in each trade; should be similar & reasonable Print Detailed Predecessor Report Have report in hand to check relationships
Schedule Development - Process Detailed Schedule Development Start at the end of the schedule Work backwards from last activity At each activity, ask, “What work has to be done for this activity to start?” (what prevents this from starting?) Make the missing logic connections Use the Pred Report for quick entry of predecessors Compare the areas of the detailed schedule to the Outline Schedule Should be similar Review and adjust as necessary
Schedule Development - Owner-Controlled, Design Related And Procurement Activities Treat Owner activities like any other work activities Look in Contract for specification requirements Submittal approval times – specification or verify Consider re-submittal cycle for difficult or highly detailed activities Include all Owner scope of work (include permits, permanent telephone and other utilities, owner supplied equipment, other contracts, Health Department approvals, etc.) Code Owner activities so they can be filtered and tracked Owner and Contractor are both interested parties Ensure the successor activities are accurately defined Any delays related to these activities should be captured accurately for the protection of both the Owner and the Contractor
Early Completion Schedules Unintentional Early Completion Review durations and other components carefully Do not leave float in baseline schedule unless positive that the job can be completed early Constrain Substantial Completion for contractual date Review durations and logic very carefully Intentional Early Completion Check specification requirements for early completion Document that project was bid with general conditions to match planned project duration Notify Owner that intention is to finish early Be aware that Owner may suggest formal change order to move the completion date to the scheduled completion Negotiate the completion date during baseline review
Project Team • Who owns the schedule? • Project Manager? • Superintendent? • Scheduler? • Project Team? • It is absolutely imperative that someone on the Team has primary responsibility for maintaining the schedule in order for it to be successfully utilized.
Site Visit &/or Photographs • Have you, as the scheduler, ever been to the site? • Do you know what it is you’re scheduling? • It is always helpful to visit the site if possible. Particulary with the project team so they can describe their ideas about how they will be constructing the project.
Characteristics Of A Useful Schedule • Schedule must model the project • Proper level of detail (limited number of critical activities) • Summarize to one page • Team buy-in; all stakeholders involved in schedule process • Describes superintendent’s plan (not the President’s plan) • All activities tied to completion • Resource-based durations • Meet the specification • Include procurement activities (and coordination) • Written narrative to identify plan
Schedule Logic - Subcontractors • Subcontractors should be an integral part of Baseline Schedule development team. • Teamwork and commitment • Schedule must be understandable to subcontractors • Subcontractors must be part of any revision or recovery discussion
Typical Areas of Conflict • Stakeholders: Who uses the schedule? • Level of Detail • Reasonableness of Schedule • Approval/Non-approval Issue/Approval Standoff • Failure to Involve Major Trade Contractors • Failure to include Owner requirements (other contracts, utilities, commissioning, etc.) • Early Completion Schedules • Ownership of float, contingency time
Know the… • Contract Requirements • Scope of the Work • Basic CPM logic rules and how they are applied in the software • Contractor means & methods • Limitations & constraints of the Owner, Contractor, the Site & the Industry
Questions/Comments 45 “PMI” is a registered trade and service mark of the Project Management Institute, Inc.
Contact Information Na N m a e John Potter, PSP Titl t e Project Controls Manager Co C mpan a y Alpha Construction & Engineering Corporation Em E ai a l John.firstname.lastname@example.org Ph P one (O) 757-533-9368 (M) 206-200-6833 Na N m a e Chris Carson, PSP Titl t e Corporate Director of Project Controls Co C mpan a y Alpha Construction & Engineering Corporation Em E ai a l Chris.Carson@alphacorporation.com Ph P one (O) 757-533-9368 (M) 757-342-5524 46 “PMI” is a registered trade and service mark of the Project Management Institute, Inc.