Sep. 12, 2013 ALA TechSource Workshop Improving Your Library’s Mobile Services Bohyun Kim Digital Access Librarian, Florida International University Medical Library h t t p : / / b o h y u n k i m . n e t / b l o g | @ b o h y u n k i m
Today’s Topics 1. The significance of the mobile web 2. Mobile consumer behavior 3. Developments in libraries’ mobile websites 4. Responsive Web Design 5. Building and growing your library’s mobile presence 6. Ask questions on the chat window or on Twitter (@bohyunkim / #libmobile).
Text, No Voicemail Leaving a voice mail instead of texting is impolite because it wastes the receiver’s time. Asking people something that is easily discoverable on the Internet is equally rude because the communication is not only unnecessary but also time- consuming. Nick Bilton, “Disruptions: Digital Era Redefining Etiquette,” Bits (blog), New York Times, March 10, 2013, http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/03/10/ etiquette-redefined-in-the-digital-age.
Preoccupied by Smartphone An estimated 20 million passengers miss bus or train stops each year because of "digital distraction" from their smartphone. The problem has affected 51% of Britons and causes around 15% of commuters to run late for meetings, according to the findings. Over the last year, passengers have missed their stops an estimated 29 million times. Mobile Life Report by O2/Samsung (2013), http ://news.uk.msn.com/odd-news/smartphones-lead-to-missed-stops-1.
Wireless Data Traffic Explosion Over the five-year period from 2007 to 2011, wireless data traffic on AT&T, the second largest wireless carrier in the United States, has grown 20,000 percent, at least doubling itself every year since 2007. Chris Velazco, “AT&T’s Wireless Data Traffic Doubles Every Year, but Throttling Is Not the Solution,” TechCrunch, February 14, 2012, http://techcrunch. com/2012/02/14/atts-wireless-data-traffic-doubles- every-year-but-throttling- is-not-the-solution.
More Increase Mobile Data Traffic Worldwide mobile data traffic will increase 13-fold over the next four years, reaching 11.2 exabytes per month (134 exabytes annually) by 2017. Cisco Visual Networking Index: Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update, 2012–2017, http://www.cisco.com/en/US/solutions/collateral/ns341/ns525/ns537/ns70 5/ns827/white_paper_c11-520862.html
Cisco’s Mobile Data Traffic Forecast
Exabyte = 10006 byte
We now spend 37 percent of our Internet time on mobile. ComScore, 2013 Mobile Future in Focus, white paper (Reston, VA: comscore, February 2013), 12, www.comscore.com/ Insights/presentations_and_Whitepapers/2013/2013_Mobile_Future_in_Focus
How long we spend using our smartphones (by activity) each day Browsing the internet 24 Checking social networks 16 Listening to music 15 Playing games 13 Making calls 13 Text messaging 11 Checking/writing emails 9 Reading books 8 Watching TV/films 7 Taking photographs 3 Total 119 minutes Mobile Life Report by O2/Samsung (2013), http ://news.o2.co.uk/?press-release=i-cant-talk-dear-im-on-my-phone.
What we do on the smartphone and the tablet ComScore, 2013 Mobile Future in Focus, white paper (Reston, VA: comscore, February 2013), 33, www.comscore.com/ Insights/presentations_and_Whitepapers/2013/2013_Mo- bile_Future_in_Focus.
Mobile Device Use at Home According to the interviews and the survey conducted by Yahoo! and the Nielsen Company in June 2010 , 93 percent of mobile users accessed the Internet on their mobile devices away from home but as many as 89 percent also used their mobile devices to access the Internet inside their home. Ashmeed Ali, Edwin Wong, Gateley Meeker, andDavid Gill, The Mobile Shopping Framework Study: The Role of Mobile Devices in the Shopping Process, white paper (New York: Nielsen Company, January 2011), 5, www.slideshare.net/ashmeed25/mobile-shopping- frameworkstudy2010whitepaper-final.
Mobile Consumer Behavior There’s a persistent myth that mobile users are always distracted, on the go, “info snacking” in sessions of 10 seconds. That’s certainly part of the mobile experience, but not the whole story. Mobile isn’t just “mobile”. It’s also the couch, the kitchen, the three-hour layover, all places where we have time and attention to spare. 42 percent of mobile users say they use it for entertainment when they’re bored. Those aren’t 10-second sessions. That means we shouldn’t design only for stunted sessions or limited use cases. Josh Clark, “Nielsen Is Wrong on Mobile,” .Net Magazine, April 12, 2012, www.netmagazine.com/ opinions/nielsen-wrong-mobile.
Are Mobile Users in a Rush? People are turning to their smartphones more to utilize their downtime than to meet some urgent need and that users are not always in a huge rush when they are using their smartphones. (p.11) People are willing to and actually do turn to their mobile devices for a longer time than just a few minutes and for tasks that can be complicated. (p.12) Bohyun Kim, The Library Mobile Experience: Practices and User Expectations, Library Technology Report 49(6), ALA TechSource, 2013.
Categories of Mobile Use Lookup/Find (urgent info, local): I need an answer to something now -frequently related to my current location in the world. Explore/Play (bored, local): I have some time to kill and just want a few idle time distractions. Check In/Status (repeat/micro-tasking): Something important to me keeps changing or updating and I want to stay on top of it. Edit/Create (urgent change/micro-tasking): I L nee uke d Wro to g blewske i, t so Mobilm e e Fir th st ing (New d Yo o rk:ne no A Book w Ap th art, at can’ 2011), p. 5 t 0. wait.
Don’t Dumb Things Down on Mobile There are, of course, differences based on mobile and desktop usage patterns; but the core value of a web service remains the same across both formats and beyond. In fact, you’ll quickly find your customers will expect to do just about everything (within reason) on mobile. Especially those who primarily (or only) use their mobiles to get online. So don’t dumb things down on mobile—focus on what really matters most anywhere people can access your website. Wroblewski, Mobile First, 22.
The Significance of the Mobile Web The mobile Web is no longer an inferior or a complementary means of accessing the Web. It is a competitor to the desktop Web and will soon be accessed by more people than the desktop Web. Considering this situation, offering only a basic set of information and features on the mobile Web is no longer a viable strategy. (p.13) Bohyun Kim, The Library Mobile Experience: Practices and User Expectations, Library Technology Report 49(6), ALA TechSource, 2013.
On Mobile – Libraries and Patrons Mobile websites are preferred by libraries over native apps for the reasons of cost and development skills required. But consumers overwhelmingly prefer native apps over mobile websites. According to the recent survey and interview results from the Pew Internet and American Life Project, 63 percent of Americans ages 16 and older would use apps-based access to library materials and programs (35 percent “very likely” and 28 percent “somewhat likely”), and 62 percent would use GPS- navigation apps that help them locate material inside library buildings (34 percent “very likely” and 28 percent “somewhat – Kathryn Zickuhr, Lee Rainie, and Kristen Purcell, Library Services in the Digital like Agely ( ” W ). ashington, DC: Pew Research Center, January 22, 2013), 57, http://libraries.pewinternet.org/2013/01/22/library-services.
Apps vs. Mobile Websites Content in a walled garden Easily discovered by a search engine Access to the device hardware such In development: as GPS, microphone, camera, file - File system APIs system, etc. - Device /media APIs - Audio APIs Easy payment collection Can be cumbersome or not supported Continual updates / Separate No need for installation or updates installation Can function without Internet Requires Internet connection connection Faster Slower (Mobile Data Speed is improving)
Libraries’ Mobile Websites NCsU Libraries’ mobile website MobiLIB in 2007 [Image credit: Markus Wust, “MobiLIB: A Library service for Generation ‘Mo bile’ at North Carolina state University” (presented at the RUsA MARs Hot Topics Discussion Group at Ameri- can Library Association An- nual Meeting, Washington, DC, June 23, 2007), www. lib.ncsu.edu/documents/dli/ projects/mobilib/presenta- tion_ALA.ppt] Images from Aaron Tay’, “What Are Mobile Friendly Library sites offering? A survey, April 24, 2010, http://musingsaboutlibrarianship.blogspot.com/2010/04/comparison-of-40-mobile-library-sites. html.
Trends in Libraries’ Mobile Website More information and resources beyond hours and contact info Research section Article Search Course Reserves Catalog Search Box on the mobile website homepage Mobile-appropriate (for 2013) features Study rooms, computers, account management
Kent State University Libraries 2009 Focus Group “Participants’ interest in conducting research using their mobile device was certainly a surprise. Our assumption was that basic library information would suffice on a mobile Web site; however, the students who participated in this study wanted to be able to interact with library resources on their mobile dev Jamie S i eeh ces olzer and . J” oseph A. Salem, “Library on the Go: A Focus Group Study of the Mobile Web and the Academic Library,” College & Research Libraries 72, no. 1 (2011), 17
Students’ Wishlist in 2009 Being able to search the library catalog on the mobile device. Request or place an item on hold from their phone. Customizable options and personalized information from the library regarding their library account and other services such as: Contacted by text messaging when a requested library item was available for pickup or when a material was nearing its due date. Text message reminders about upcoming library appointments. Being able to customize their mobile web experience such as: Being able to pick their favorite databases or choose their own top ten links to see on a mobile Website A library building guide and an explanation of the call number system. Text or have a live chat with a librarian about a research question or how to cite a source. Jamie Seeholzer and Joseph A. Salem, “Library on the Go: A Focus Group Study of the Mobile Web and the Academic Library,” College & Research Libraries 72, no. 1 (2011), 15-19.
What would be mobile-appropriate in 2016? MIT Libraries’ 2011 Survey Heather Denny, “survey snapshot: Library Research Using Mobile Devices,” MIT Libraries News, December 3, 2012, http://libraries.mit.edu/sites/news/survey- snapshot-library/9911
Improve Your Library’s Mobile Website Step-By-Step Create a Mobile Website Mobilize Your Library Catalog Put the Catalog Search Box on Your Library’s Mobile Website Homepage Add More Mobile-Friendly Library Resources and Content Offer Library Account Management Feature Other experiments
Responsive Web Design (RWD) What is it? How is it used in libraries? Pros and Cons Resources and Tools
This is Not RWD
RWD in Libraries
RWD in Libraries www.library.nd.edu
RWD in Libraries www.saclibrary.org See more examples in Eric Rumsey, “Responsive Design Sites: Higher Ed, Libraries, Notables,” Seeing the Picture (blog), May 3, 2012, http://blog. lib.uiowa.edu/hardinmd/2 012/05/03/ responsive- design-sites-higher-ed- libraries-notables.
Definition - RWD The term, “responsive web design,” has become popular from the article that a web designer and developer Ethan Marcottee wrote in 2010. The goal of responsive web design is to make a web page look equally well regardless of the screen size of a device. Ethan Marcotte, “Responsive Web Design,” A List Apart, May 25, 2010, http://alistapart.com/article/responsive-web- design.
What Makes RWD Responsive? A flexible, grid-based layout Flexible images Media queries
Common Problem 1 An extremely long page filled with too many navigation items, links, and more links.
t n te n o c e lin m a tre S
Common problem 2 Responsive sites usually do not give users an option to go back to the look of the full desktop website. For those who are familiar with the existing library website and know exactly where to go and get the information they want, the automatic change in the website layout on a small-screen device can be disorienting and confusing.
Make the Site Light and Fast Example: A typical page on Romney’s mobile website was about 687 KB and loaded in about 8.75 seconds. By contrast, the size of a typical page on Obama’s responsive website was about 4.2 MB and took whopping 25 seconds to load. Brad Frost, “Separate Mobile Website Vs. Responsive Website,” Smashing Magazine, August 22, 2012, http://mobile.smashingmagazine.com/2012/08/ 22/separate-mobile-responsive-website-presi dential-smackdown /.
Performance savings in mobile sites Web performance researcher Guy Podjarny reported that his performance test on 347 responsive websites showed that as many as 86 percent of them had little to no performance savings when loaded in the smallest window compared to the largest one, thereby making the page load painfully slow. Guy Podjarny, “Performance Implications of Responsive Design – Book Contribution,” Guy’s Pod, July 11, 2012, http://www.guypo.com/mobile/performance-implicati ons-of-responsive-design-book-contribution /.
Library’s Presence on Mobile - Make It Stand Out Mobile e-readers and tablets E-books/audiobooks downloadable to a mobile device Mobile devices for check-out (e.g. Flip camera, iPod touch, laptop, etc.) Mobile resources (Part of your library collection) Mobile services and communication (e.g. Facebook, SMS reference, etc.) Mobile website
Promote Mobile in Physical Space Florida International University Green Library. Images from Bohyun Kim, “Making Library e-Books on the e-Book Reader Visible,” ACRL TechConnect Blog, http://acrl.ala.org/techconne ct/?p= 498